Zeinab Ali Mohamed, Ibrahim B Elemam, Mohammed Abdelgader Elsheikh, Tibyan Abd Almajed Altaher, Ghanem Mohammed Mahjaf, Mosab Nouraldein Mohammed Hamad
SAR J Pathol Microbiol | Pages : 58-64
DOI : 10.36346/sarjpm.2023.v04i05.001
Background: Chronic gastric infection with Helicobacter pylori can cause intestinal metaplasia, a pathologic change that is frequently a precursor of gastric cancer; CDX2 has an essential role in the development and maintenance of intestinal differentiation in the gut and ectopic sites such as intestinal metaplasia of the stomach. Objective: This study aimed to investigate caudal-type home box (CDX2) Immuno expression as an early indicator for gastric intestinal metaplasia among Sudanese patients with chronic gastritis. Materials and methods: This is a descriptive retrospective cross-sectional study conducted at Atbara Medical Complex and El-MakNimr University Hospital at River Nile State in the period from 2019 to 2022. 140 archival paraffin tissue blocks were collected from patients diagnosed with chronic gastritis, immunohistochemistry was used to detect (CDX2 expression as an early indicator for gastric intestinal metaplasia. Results: From 140 samples, 80 were females (57.1 %) and 60 were males (42.9%), the patient's ages ranged from (12 to 97) with a mean age of (53.27) years, and age was categorized into three groups, less than 40 (27) (19.3%), 40- 60 (64) (45.7%), more than 60 (49) (35.0%). The prevalence of gastric intestinal metaplasia was (17.9%, while no statistically significant correlation of gastric intestinal metaplasia with gender and age as the P.value was (0.308 and 0.256) respectively. Conclusion: The development of gastric intestinal metaplasia as a premalignant condition of gastric carcinoma is important to detect this change at an early point to prevent and control gastric cancer.
Marwa amin Al-Rawi, Nada H. A. L. Al-Mudallal, Ali A. Taha
SAR J Pathol Microbiol | Pages : 48-57
DOI : 10.36346/sarjpm.2023.v04i04.003
Background: Due to their extensive use in medical therapy, iron oxide nanoparticles have recently attracted the attention of researchers in the field of increasing multi-resistance properties in bacterial pathogens. Because iron oxide nanoparticles have a high specific surface area, they can interact with bacterial surface structures and exhibit significant antibacterial activity. Objective: The current work, determined the effect of a novel anti-virulence factor agent which was created from iron oxide nanoparticles against selected gram-positive and gram-negative variant bacterial strains that were isolated and identified from elderly Iraqi patients with urinary tract infections. Methods: Seven bacterial strains (three gram-positive and four gram-negative) were tested for their (biofilm, adhesion, and hemolysis) activity using the quantitative test-tube method, glass-slide method, and by determining the hemolysis ability of bacterial isolates against previously prepared RBC, respectively. The highest virulence factors formation bacterial isolates were chosen to determine the effect of Iron-oxide nanoparticles. Previously prepared and characterized Iron- oxide nanoparticles were used as anti- (biofilm, adhesion, and hemolysis) by using specific Bacterial-Fe3O4 NPs complex with different concentrations. The Results: All these bacteria expressed their virulence factors, the highest-level biofilm formation abilities were detected in Proteus mirabilis and Staphylococcus aureus, and the highest-level adhesion activity was observed in Enterococcus faecalis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa while the highest-level hemolysis activities on human RBC were determined in Micrococcus luteus and E. coli. The effects of (Fe3O4) nanoparticles against the highest virulence factors bacterial isolates shows an increases in the biofilm formation abilities of S. aureus and P. mirabilis as well as for standard bacterial strains the anti-biofilm formation ability of (Fe3 O4) NPs against gram-positive S. aureus, Proteus mirabilis, and standard gram-negative bacteria demonstrated an in-decrease biofilm formation ability of these bacteria effective at (5000 and 10000 µg/ml). The anti-adhesion ability of (Fe3 O4) NPs against gram-positive Enterococcus faecalis, and gram-negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa determined no effect on the adhesion abilities of gram-positive and negative bacteria atall concentrations (250, 400, 500, 750 and 1000µg/ml) Finally, the effect of different concentrations of iron oxide nanoparticles on the hemolysis ability of Micrococcus luteus and Escherichia coli on RBC was determined, the highest hemolysis inhibition level was estimated in 1000 µg/ml and the less inhibition in 500 µg/ml as compared with control.
SAR J Pathol Microbiol | Pages : 41-47
DOI : 10.36346/sarjpm.2023.v04i04.002
Ten well water samples were analyzed for the development of bacterial load using 1%, 5% and 10% concentrations of alum which was added to each 100ml of well water samples to determine the effect of alum on the microbial load of well water from Rural and Urban Areas in Enugu State. After exerting an effect on the well water sample, the supernatants and sediments were analyzed for development of bacteria colonies by viable cell counts. It was observed that the effect of alum on bacterial load increases as the percentage concentration of the of alum increases, however, further increase in the concentration of alum has no effect on the bacterial load, and this can be observed in well water from Ufuma Achara layout, Agbani Nkanu, Ugbo Paul Abakpa, Ohofia Uwani and Amodu Awkunanaw. On the other hand, from1% to 5% concentration of alum has no effect on the supernatant of well water from Amaokwe Achara layout, but however, with increase in concentration of about 10% it began to exert an effect on the bacterial load of both the supernatants and sediments.
SAR J Pathol Microbiol | Pages : 35-40
DOI : 10.36346/sarjpm.2023.v04i04.001
Background: Intestinal parasitic infections including amoebiasis, blastocystosis, giardiasis, are all worldwide distribution with harmful effects, it is an important cause of morbidity and death rate in the poor countries. Objective: This study was done to collect information of the frequency of these diseases in some regions of Baghdad. Our objectives are to detect the frequency of human pathogenic parasites in some regions of Baghdad in stool samples of patients who would attend to AL-Kindy Teaching Hospital, Medical City Teaching Hospital and to determine the most common age group affected. Materials and Methods: Data were collected from Al-Kindy Teaching Hospital and Medical City Teaching Hospital, in the lab of parasitology from June 2021 to February 2022. The present study included (200) sample, which were collected from patients at different ages of both genders, samples of the study were selected randomly. Results: The results of epidemiological study showed that the total number infected with Entamoeba histolytica parasite was (129) positive samples with total percentage of (64.5%) in both of Al-Kindy Teaching Hospital and Medical City Teaching Hospital, Percentage of infective cases with this parasite in the two hospitals, were (93%, and 36%) respectively, followed by Blastocystis hominis with total number of (59) positive samples and a percentage of (29.5%). The percentage of infective cases with this parasite in the two hospitals, were (5%, and 54%) respectively, and then Giardia lamblia with total number of (12) positive samples, and a percentage of (6%). The percentage of infective cases with this parasite in the two hospitals, were (2%, and 10%) respectively. Males showed higher number and percentage of infection with E. histolytica, (85) case with percentage of (42.5%), while females were (44) case with percentage of (22%), while number and percentage of infection with B. hominis in males were (34) case with percentage of (17%), and females were (25) case with percentage of (12.5%), finally number and percentage of infection with G. lamblia in males (6) cases with percentage of (3%), equal females were (6) case with percentage of (3%). Infection highest percentage happened among age group (20-29) years with percentage of (28%), while the lowest percentage of infection occurred among age group (1-9) years, with percentage (1%), were detected in Medical City Teaching Hospital. In conclusions: Entamoeba histolytica was the most frequent parasite in our study, followed by Blastocystis hominis, while Giardia lambilia was the least frequent one. Also males were more affected than females to parasitic infections, and the most common age group affected was (20-29) years.Health education, safety of food and water must get higher to increase the knowledge of community about diseases caused by intestinal parasites.Using permanent stains, culture, molecular methods, and serological methods for detection of parasites, also making more studies including increasing in number of samples.
SAR J Pathol Microbiol | Pages : 30-34
DOI : 10.36346/sarjpm.2023.v04i03.002
Background: Honey is frequently used as an antiseptic, prophylactic, and therapeutic agent for many infections. The chemical and physical properties of honey have an inhibitory effect on a lot of microorganisms including fungi. Rhizopus stolonifer, Mucor spp., and Aspergillus niger are common indoor molds that contaminate bread and eatable plants. During growth on bread, they multiply and produce large numbers of spores that can cause different types of infections, especially in immunocompromised patients. Objectives: 1) To evaluate the effect of natural honey on the growth of Rhizopus stolonifer, Mucor spp., and Aspergillus niger fungi. 2) To determine the minimal inhibitory concentration of honey that can suppress the growth of these fungi. 3) To assess the possibility of using honey as a natural replacement for chemical preservatives. Methodology: This experimental study was conducted in the College of Sciences at King Saud University between August and November 2021 in Riyadh, KSA. Multifloral honey was diluted in sterile distilled water volume to volume (%, v/v) in series concentrations: 5%, 15%, 30%, 45%, and 60%. The diluted samples of honey were then added to potato dextrose agar (PDA). Measured parts of the colonies of Rhizopus stolonifer, Mucor, and Aspergillus niger, were cultured on the PDA plates with the diluted honey. Two replicates were used for every concentration of each fungus. The inoculated plates, including the controls, were incubated at room temperature (25±2°C). Fungal growth was monitored daily for three months. Results: The 5%, 15%, and 35% concentrations of honey mixed with PDA did not inhibit the fungal growth, the fungi grew within the first 24h while the 60 % dilute concentration killed the three fungi and completely inhibited their growth. The fungi were monitored for 3 months; during that time, there was no growth. In conclusion: This study confirms that honey strongly inhibits the growth of Rhizopus Stolonifer, Mucor spp., and Aspergillus niger when used in a concentration of 60% or above. Accordingly based on these findings we determine that the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of multi-floral honey on bread fungi is 60%.
Leila M. Ahmed Abdelgader, Salma Salman Omer, Ghanem Mohammed Mahjaf, Tibyan Abd Almajed Altaher, Mosab Nouraldein Mohammed Hamad
SAR J Pathol Microbiol | Pages : 24-29
DOI : 10.36346/sarjpm.2023.v04i03.001
Background: Urinary tract infection is a widespread microbial disease and 2nd most disease in women due to the anatomy of women type 2 diabetes is a high risk of infection of the urinary tract. Objective: To identify the agent that causes urinary tract infections in diabetic patients, select the best antibiotic, and assess the types of diabetes that are connected with urinary tract infections. Materials and Methods: From May to August 2018, a hospital-based cross- sectional study was carried out. According to the established methodology, urine samples were obtained for culture and identification. All isolates underwent an antimicrobial susceptibility test (AST) using the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. The Statistical Package for the Social Science (SPSS) version 20 was used to import the data from Epi-data version 3.2.1. Results: The study's findings indicated that E. coli is the most prevalent bacterium, with a prevalence of approximately (30.2%). It is followed by K. pneumoniae (26.3%), and then by Staphylococcus aureus and Saprophiticus in percentage (15%). Gentamicin has a high rate of antibiotic sensitivity (approximately 36%), while Ceftazidime has a high rate of antibiotic resistance (about 35%). Around (52%) of people are resistant to Ceftriaxone and Cloxacillin. Conclusions: There was a high rate of UTI in diabetes patients. Female diabetics were more likely to experience UTIs than male diabetics.E. coli and K. pneumoniae species making up the majority of isolates. The isolated pathogens were highly susceptible to Gentamicin, Cloxacillin, and Ceftriaxone. These findings demonstrate the importance of glycemic management in diabetics for reducing UTIs, regardless of age or sex. By treating UTIs with the appropriate antimicrobial medications and monitoring the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of isolated microorganisms, antibiotic-resistant urinary organisms can be managed.
Ibrahim Bakhit Yousif Elemam, Duaa Sharaf Eldin Safi Eldin Ahmed, Tibyan Abd Almajed Altaher, Ghanem Mohammed Mahjaf, Mosab Nouraldein Mohammed Hamad
SAR J Pathol Microbiol | Pages : 20-23
DOI : 10.36346/sarjpm.2023.v04i02.002
Background: The second most frequent cancer in males and the fourth most common cancer overall for both sexes is prostate cancer. On chromosome 8p, there is a prostatic tumor suppressor gene called NKX3.1. Despite the fact that the majority of primary prostatic adenocarcinomas exhibit positive NKX3.1 protein staining. Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the immunohistochemical expression of NKX3.1in prostate adenocarcinoma and correlate it with tumor grades among Sudanese patients. Materials and Methods: This study is a retrospective descriptive cross- sectional study, was conducted in Khartoum state, (Radiation& Istopes Center- Khartoum (RICK)). Tissue sections were stained by immunohistochemical staining against NKX3.1 (indirect dextral polymers (Dako- EnVision TM Flex kit)) was carried out on forty (40) archival formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue blocks from patients diagnosed as prostate carcinoma. Data were collected from hospital records and the immunohistochemical results and then analyzed using SPSS 25.0 frequency, and Chi-Square and mean were calculated. Results: The study found that the most frequent age group is between (71 – 80) years old, twenty (20) cases have prostate adenocarcinoma grade III, twelve (12) cases were grade II, and eight (8) cases were grade I. Any nuclear NKX3.1 staining was regarded as positive. Thirty-five (35%) have NKX3 positive immunostain while (65%) have a negative result. There is a statistically significant correlation between the NKX3.1 expressions and tumor grade as the P. value was (0.000), while in a statistically significant correlation between the NKX3 expressions and patients' age as the P. value was (0.957). Conclusions: NKX3 immuno expression is strongly associated with higher tumor grade and may prove the role of this protein in the progression of prostate cancer.
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