Satti AB, Wahaj M Mohammed, Mohamed I Garbi, Mosab Nouraldein Mohammed Hamad
SAR J Pathol Microbiol | Pages : 81-84
DOI : 10.36346/sarjpm.2022.v03i06.001
Background: Schistosomiasis is a debilitating disease, infects millions of people in tropical and subtropical regions. Objectives: This study assessed the situation of the urinary schistosomiasis among the people of the Alsyal village, River Nile State, Sudan. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was carried out in 2016, in the Alsyal village, and 220 samples of urine were collected and processed using the centrifugation/sedimentation technique. Results: The overall prevalence and intensity of the disease among the pupils studied were 4.1% and 95.9 eggs/10ml urine, respectively. The prevalence of infection among male pupils was 77.8%, and for females was 22.2%, while the intensity among males was 64.9eggs/10ml and for females was 35.1 eggs/10ml urine. The highest infection rate (71.4%) was reported among the 12- 24 years age group, while the infection was (14.3%) among less than 12 years and more than 24 years age group. Conclusion: Findings show the need for an integrated control program against urinary schistosomiasis including the treatment of all infected the people and the implementation of a health education program.
SAR J Pathol Microbiol | Pages : 73-80
DOI : 10.36346/sarjpm.2022.v03i05.003
The quality of the liqueurs and their organoleptic properties depend on the characteristics of spirits or milk cream used as well as on the preparation procedures, including maceration and maturation processes. Hence the aim of this study is to produce a cream liqueur using whiskey as the spirit base and observe its shelf life stability. The specific objectives of this study were to produce cream liqueurs of different concentrations using whisky and milk cream, to evaluate the physicochemical properties of the cream liqueurs, to determine the shelf stability of the produced cream liqueur after three months of storage, to carry out sensory evaluation on the cream liqueurs in comparison with a commercial cream liqueur and to determine the acceptance of the liqueurs statistically based on parameters tested using One-Way ANOVA at P≤0.05. Ten (10) samples of cream liqueur were produced using standard method with different concentrations of sodium caseinate and were labelled Samples A to J. The cream liqueur samples were kept and stored at 30oC for 3 months for shelf study. The result of organoleptic evaluation showed that there was no significant (P>0.05) difference in taste, aroma, appearance and overall acceptability between the cream liqueur samples and a commercial cream liqueur. The presence of alcohol in the cream liqueur helps in the preservation of the liqueur and ensures maximum microbial stability and extended shelf life. It can be concluded therefore, that whiskey and cream milk are good raw materials for cream liqueur production.
Hamza Ahmed Hassan, Elfatih Mohammed Abdalla Ali, Eltayeb Ahmed Motasim alnger, Eslam Abdalla M. Ahmed, Alaa Babiker H. Alkab, Ghanem Mohammed Mahjaf, Mosab Nouraldein Mohammed Hamad
SAR J Pathol Microbiol | Pages : 69-72
DOI : 10.36346/sarjpm.2022.v03i05.002
Background: Covid-19 can Cause Various Conditions Including respiratory, enteric, and neurological diseases, and led to a pandemic that has affected millions worldwide. Methods: This is a cross-sectional descriptive study conducted at Shendi teaching hospital which is located in Shendi town in Sudan to evaluate Haematological parameters and D. Dimer in patients with Covid-19 Infection in the period between May to September 2021. The study included (50) patients who were diagnosed with Covid-19 Infection and the study groups were compared with (50) healthy volunteers as a control group. 50 venous blood samples as case and 50 as control transferred into Tri sodium citrate and EDTA anticoagulant. Data was collected using a questionnaire and the (SPSS) version (22) program was used for data analysis. Results: The study revealed that the Covid-19 Infection patients were; (60%) males and (40) females. Complete blood count (CBC) indicated the mean values of Hb, PCV, RBCs, MCV, MCH, MCHC, in case group were (12.5 g/dl), (38.9%), (4.5x1012/l), (86.7 fl), (27.7 pg) and (32.0 g/dl) respectively. Also prevailed the mean of TWBCs, Neutrophil, lymphocyte, MID, Absolute Neutrophil, Absolute lymphocyte, Absolute MID, were (13.09x 109 /l), (79.27%), (11.79%), (8.77%), (10.38), (1.54), and (1.16) respectively. The study revealed the mean of platelet, D.dimer (296.63x 109 /l), (6.07ug/ml), respectively. Conclusions: Covid-19 Infection is responsible for significant changes in hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, total white blood cells count differential and absolute neutrophils count and differential and absolute lymphocytes count and D. dimer.
Salwa Mohamed A. Almahgoub, Asma Al-ameer M. Zeen, Mubarak Al-hamodi, Ghanem Mohammed Mahjaf, Mosab Nouraldein Mohammed Hamad
SAR J Pathol Microbiol | Pages : 63-68
DOI : 10.36346/sarjpm.2022.v03i05.001
Background: Breast cancer is common in Sudan and most patients are detected at later stages of the disease due to the lack of awareness and absence of early screening programs. The majority of breast cancers originate in the epithelium lining the milk ducts. It is believed that most breast canceras are slow growing and progress from precancerous cells, which have cellular and nuclear changes that can be identified microscopically. Aim: To cytological screening of breast cancer in breast fluid. Methods: This is a cross-sectional feasible study conducted in Shendi town, 200 samples of different breast fluids from asymptomatic women. (100 nipple aspiration fluid, 50 milk smear, 50 postpartum milk) have been collected and screened cytologically. Stained by pap stain. Results: After cytology screening of breast fluid in, milk 30/50(60%) of women were non-cell secretors and 20/50 (40%) of women were cell secretors. Cells that appeared among the secreting group were a few epithelial cells and immune cells. In postpartum milk all women 50/50 (100%) were cell secretors, abnormal cytomorphological changes were in 15/50 (30%) of them, and high secretion of immune cells 50/50 (100%) which found to statistically of significant value (0.000). NAF was not produced in 78/100. Among women who produced NAF22/100, women were produced NAF 6/22 (27.3% ) were not cell secretors (category 0), benign nonhyperplasic ductal epithelial cells (category 1) 6/22( 27.3%), benign hyperplasic ductal epithelial cells (Category II) 5/22( 22.7%), atypical ductal epithelial cell (category III) 3/22 (13.7%) atypia (Category IV) 2/22(9%). cytological atypia 21/25 (84%) appears among women more than 30 years old and there was a strong statistical of significant value P. value =(0.000). Also, risk factors (family history, contraceptive intake, and HPV) statistically have a significant correlation with cytological atypia among study group P. value = (0.036). In this study HPV infection, cytomorphological change (koilocyte) was detected in breast fluid 4/200 (2%). Conclusion: cytology of the breast is a simple, safe, rapid test that is acceptable to patients and showed the ability to detect benign and pre-neoplastic ductal epithelial cells from asymptomatic volunteers.
SAR J Pathol Microbiol | Pages : 59-62
DOI : 10.36346/sarjpm.2022.v03i04.004
Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels, commonly known as Jamun, is a widely distributed forest tree in India and other tropical and sub tropical regions of the world. The tree has a great economic importance since most of the parts like the bark, leaves, seed and fruits are used as an alternative medicine to treat various diseases. The present study aimed at the in-vitro anthelmintic activity of aqueous fruit seed extract of Syzygium cumini. The fruit seeds were extracted separately with distilled water by maceration method .The various concentrations of the extract (50,100, 200,300,400mg/ml) respectively were screened for their anthelmintic activity using Pheritima posthuma. The activity was comparable with the standard drug albendazole. When the concentrations of the extract are increased, a gradual increase in anthelmintic activity is observed. The study involved the determination of time of paralysis (P) and time of death (D) of the worms. Aqueous fruit seed extract of Syzygium cumini showed anthelmintic activity against Indian earthworms. The data were found statistically significant by using one way ANOVA (P< 0.001).
Abderrhman Ahmed Mohamed Ismaeil, Nahla Ahmed Mohammed Abderahman, Mohammed Ahmed Ibrahim Ahmed, Dahir Ali Abtidon Mohammed, Mosab Nouraldein Mohammed Hamad
SAR J Pathol Microbiol | Pages : 54-58
DOI : 10.36346/sarjpm.2022.v03i04.003
Background: Aim: Estimation of alkaline phosphatase levels in prostate cancer patients attending the National Cancer Institute of Gezira University to determine the association between elevated alkaline phosphatase levels and metastases in prostatic cancer patients. Methods: This is a descriptive cross-sectional hospital-based study to estimate alkaline phosphatase enzyme levels in patients with prostatic cancer who attended National Cancer Institute, Gezira University's between September and December 2018. A structured questionnaire was developed and prescribed to 100 subjects, which included personal and medically important information. The level of alkaline phosphatase was determined, and a biopsy was performed, with the results interpreted by a histopathologist. SPSS-23 was used to analyze the data. Results: Patients with metastatic prostatic cancer accounted for 50% of the patients in the research, and 51% of them had an alkaline phosphatase level greater than (124U/L). Bone metastasis was the most prevalent site of metastasis, accounting for 50% of all cases, whereas liver metastasis accounted for 12% of all cases. Radiation prostatectomy plus radiotherapy was the most prevalent treatment for prostatic cancer, accounting for 86 % of cases. In comparison to individuals with non-metastatic prostate cancer, the majority of patients with metastatic prostatic cancer had an elevated alkaline phosphatase. Conclusion: Finally, we discovered that the level of alkaline phosphatase is significantly raised in patients with metastatic prostate cancer. Early detection and treatment will limit the impact of this serious condition.
SAR J Pathol Microbiol | Pages : 46-53
DOI : 10.36346/sarjpm.2022.v03i04.002
Indiscriminate defecation in open places is still a common practice in Agbani, Nkanu West Local Government Area, and Enugu State Nigeria. It is obvious that the practice does not only pollute the environment but also some of these people that defecate in the open places may be carriers of infections and may deposit enteric pathogens into the agricultural soils and in the process infecting the healthy community. Effect of some environmental factors on the survival time of Escherichia coli in human faces deposited in the soil was studied. Early morning fresh faecal samples were collected randomly in Agbani Nkanu West L.G.A. Enugu State. The enteric organisms were isolated from the faecal sample using standard cultural techniques and characterized, morphologically and molecularly and identified as Escherichia coli. The survival time of Escherichia coli exposed to sunlight, shade, pH and temperature was monitored for fifty days and the results showed that there was a decrease in number of Escherichia coli exposed to sunlight, shade, pH and temperature from day seven. Escherichia coli showed little or no growth on day fifty Hence, sunlight, shade, pH and temperature had a lethal effect on the survival of Escherichia coli that had stayed up to fifty days in fecal soil. However, elimination of enteric pathogens present in open defecated feces in soil by sunlight and other environmental factors may be slow, but it is cheap and lead to environmentally friendly agricultural products. However, Open defecation is not recommended because of the health hazards associated with it.
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