SAR J Med Biochem | Pages : 72-76
DOI : 10.36346/sarjmb.2022.v03i05.001
Recent studies suggest that coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) may be transmitted by infected persons even in the absence of symptoms of disease. While social distancing and good hand hygiene are the most important methods to prevent virus transmission, new guidelines state that healthy individuals can consider wearing masks in public settings, particularly when physical distancing is difficult (like in grocery stores or pharmacies). Primary benefits of wearing a mask include limiting the spread of the virus from someone who knows or does not know they have an infection to others. Masks also remind others to continue practicing physical distancing. However, nonmedical masks may not be effective in preventing infection for the person wearing them. Masks should not be worn by children younger than 2 years or by individuals who are unable to remove the mask by themselves or are unconscious.
Noor Elsham A. Yousif, Shaza O. Mustafa, Eman. Z. E.Yassin, Fania. A. Albdari, Mosab Nouraldein Mohammed Hamad
SAR J Med Biochem | Pages : 65-71
DOI : 10.36346/sarjmb.2022.v03i04.001
Moringa oleifera grown and used in many countries around the world is a multi-purpose tree with medicinal and nutritional values. This study evaluates the effect of taking moringa oleifera leaves powder on blood sugar levels in humans, and study side effect on kidney (urea, creatinine) and liver enzyme (AST, ALT) after taken leaves powder for a month. The study targeted patients who their blood glucose not lowering by drugs. Blood glucose, urea, creatinine, AST and ALT for all diabetic patients was determined before and after taking 0.5g leaves powder. Results showed blood sugar levels decreased statistically significant (p<0.001) for all diabetic patients, and no statistically significant difference in the mean values of urea, creatinine, (AST) and (ALT) before and after taking leaves powder (p˃0.001). This study concluded that leaves powder have a significant impact on anti-diabetic property for the selected patients, so it's promising in the prevention for risk of diabetes mellitus.
SAR J Med Biochem | Pages : 58-64
DOI : 10.36346/sarjmb.2022.v03i03.005
Shisha Smoking is a risk factor for coronary heart diseases. The smoke contains large amount of chemicals which are capable of generating reactive oxygen species which play an important role in oxidative stress which in turn leads to the development and progression of many disorders such as hypertension, cancer, diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases. Monitoring lipid profile (HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and triacylgycerides) and antioxidant vitamins (A, C and E) levels is very important to give an insight on the effect of shisha smoking on lipid profile and antioxidant vitamins. This study aimed to determine the effect of shisha smoking on serum lipid profile, and antioxidant vitamins in fifty (50) apparently healthy shisha smokers (exposed group) in Kano metropolis. A corresponding fifty (50) apparently healthy non-smokers were used as controls (non exposed group). The Shisha smoking was significantly associated with increased levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride, LDL-cholesterol (p˂0.05) in smokers compared to control group. However, there was a significant (p>0.05) decrease in HDL-cholesterol and serum antioxidant vitamins (A, C and E) in exposed group compared to non-exposed group. The results of this study also indicate that exposure of human being to shisha smoke over a period of time causes slight increase in lipid profile and antioxidant vitamins but the relation was statistically not significant (p>0.05). The findings suggest that shisha smoking causes dyslipidaemia and oxidative stress.
Abderrhman Ahmed Mohamed Ismaeil, Nahla Ahmed Mohammed Abderahman, Mohammed Ahmed Ibrahim Ahmed, Nihal Abdalla Ahmed Abdalla, Mosab Nouraldein Mohammed Hamad*
SAR J Med Biochem | Pages : 51-53
DOI : 10.36346/sarjmb.2022.v03i03.004
Background: Caffeine is a significant component of coffee, which is one of the most extensively, consumed non-alcoholic beverages. Caffeine is a methylxanthine-class central nervous system stimulant that is one of the most extensively utilized medications on the planet. Caffeine stimulates the central nervous system and is perhaps the most extensively used psychoactive stimulant. It causes gastrointestinal disturbances, tremor, headache, and sleeplessness, palpitations, cardiac arrhythmias, and it has been proposed that caffeine is possibly hypertensive. Aim: The goal of the study was to see how caffeine affected the blood pressure of Sudanese adult females in Gezira state's east during July and August 2018. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional prospective study of 400 females aged 18 to 70 years old from various areas of Gezira State was conducted. Caffeine was not consumed by the participants for 12 hours before to the test. Blood pressure was monitored at baseline after 20 minutes of rest, then 45 minutes later after consuming a 150 mL cup of boiling coffee (120 mg caffeine) (each cup contain teaspoon 10 g of coffee powder). A questionnaire was created to collect personal and demographic information. Body mass index (BMI) was computed after measuring weight and height. Results: The researchers discovered that 120 mg of caffeine increased systolic blood pressure by 5 to 18 mmHg, diastolic blood pressure by 6 to 16 mmHg, and mean blood pressure by 3 to 13 mmHg. Caffeine had a higher effect in older and hypertensive people, according to the study, with a P value of <0.0001. With regular coffee consumption, there was no tolerance to the pressure impact of caffeine, according to the study. There was also racial variance in the caffeine presser response, with the Tama tribe having a stronger response and the Rufaah tribe having a higher baseline BP (P value is <0.0001). In addition, the prevalence of hypertension was 5.8% lower in rural areas. Conclusion: Caffeine raises systolic, diastolic, and mean blood pressure in Sudanese adult females, with a particularly noticeable effect on the elderly and hypertensive.
Majid A. AL-Bayati, Firas Nabeeh Jaafar, Hadeel Kareem Musafer, Maan Abdul Azeez, Zahraa Kareem Raheem
SAR J Med Biochem | Pages : 43-50
DOI : 10.36346/sarjmb.2022.v03i03.003
The microbiota can be defined as the community of microorganisms that live in a particular environment and as we all know, different types of microbes colonized the human body, derived from bacterial communities, microbial eukaryotes and viruses that are specific for each anatomical sites or environments. The next- generation DNA sequencing has allowed more and more advanced sampling and analysis of these complex systems by methods called culture- independent, these methods are indicating the differences in community structure between individuals, between diseased states and healthy and between anatomical sites. The advent of next generation sequencing (NGS) offered a cost-effective method that eliminated the cloning step by amplifying 16S rRNA genes using primers containing sequencing connecters and barcodes. However, this sequencing may not resolve closely related species at all times and probably miss the intra-species diversity. A shotgun sequencing was developed for direct sequencing of DNA. Metagenomics is the practice of sequencing DNA from the genomes of all organisms present in a particular sample, and has become a common method for the study of microbiota population structure and function. As sequencing-based microbiota analysis continues to be the greatest general technique across the arena, this review aim is to provide a general introduction to the technical opportunities and trials of sequence-based identification of human associated Microbiota and for understanding of the human Microbiota and their effect on human health and diseases.
SAR J Med Biochem | Pages : 39-42
DOI : 10.36346/sarjmb.2022.v03i03.002
Background: Interleukin-1 considered as a cytokine type multifunction and it is a feature that causes inflammation. Aim and Objective: to detect and study the immunological and molecular affect of Interleukin-1 α (IL-1 α) in Iraqi Women with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome. Materials and Methods: 250 Iraqi women, their ages were from 15 to 50 years, they were divided into two groups: study group (n=125, Polycystic Ovary Syndrome PCOS) while the other group (n=125 control group mainly normal women), blood samples were taken in the second menstruate cycle day, the concentration of IL-1 α was calculated for each group, and after this determine the IL-1 α SNP (IL-1 α Rs1800787 A/G) by using real time PCR. Results: PCSO patients show a noticeable difference compared with other group. The mean level of IL-1α was 69.69± 93.38 (Pg /ml), 3.52E2± 139.15 (Pg /ml) in PCOS and healthy control respectively. The levels were ranging between 0 and 591 Pg/ml. The GG genotype (mutant gene) was detected in 94/125 (75.2%) of PCOS, and the AG genotype was detected in 31/125 (24.8%) of PCOS. The AA genotype (wild type) was not detected in both healthy and PCOS groups. Conclusions: The results showed high significant association of G allele in IL-1 α Rs1800787 A/G gene SNP (A/G) with PCOS, (P<0.0001), this increasing may related to ovulation lack, while the polymorphism in IL-1 α, can be a predispose aspect for the PCOS weakness.
Iyevhobu K.O, Airefetalor AI, Omolumen LE, Osagiede EK, Ikede RE, Ken-Iyevhobu BA, Elimian A
SAR J Med Biochem | Pages : 31-38
DOI : 10.36346/sarjmb.2022.v03i03.001
The normal human skin is colonized by huge numbers of bacteria that live as commensals on its surface. At times bacteria not normally found there may colonize the epidermis and lead rapidly to disease. The oral cavity is comprised of many surfaces, each coated with a plethora of bacteria, the proverbial bacterial biofilm. Some of these bacteria have been implicated in oral diseases such as caries and periodontitis, which are among the most common bacterial infections in humans. In addition, specific oral bacterial species have been implicated in several systemic diseases, such as bacterial endocarditis, aspiration pneumonia, osteomyelitis in children, preterm low birth weight, and cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study is to evaluate the bacteria species associated with the skin and orals of different occupational groups in Ekpoma. This study was carried out in the Ekpoma, Esan West Local Government Area of Edo State. Participants were selected from the list of five (5) different occupational groups (Students, Office workers, Bike riders, Food handlers and Brick layers) in Ekpoma. Informed consent was sought from the various individuals. A total of one hundred (100) samples were collected from different occupational groups in the study area. The sample analysis was carried out using standard methods. Results obtained showed the rate of bacterial isolates from the skin and orals of the occupational groups studied is 63% and 43% respectively. Out of the 20 samples collected from the skin of each occupations, 9(45%) were positive for students, 16(80%) were for bike riders, 8(40%) for office workers, 17(85%) were for food handlers and 13(33%) for bricklayers. Food handlers appeared to be the occupation with the highest bacterial isolates on the skin followed by bike riders, bricklayers, students and office workers being the least. While out of the 20 samples collected from the mouth of each occupations, 7(35%) were positive for students, 11(55%) were for bike riders, 4(20%) for office workers, 12(60%) were for food handlers and 9(45%) for bricklayers. Office workers the highest bacteria isolates in the mouth followed by bike riders, food handlers and students been the least. In order to meet the huge challenge of occupational safety in the 21st century, a coordinative and cooperative approach is required. This will be a major task of the public health community and will require the use of new methods of identifying, monitoring and assessing of skin and oral infections, including the wide application of the hazard analysis and critical control point system.
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