South Asian Res J Bio Appl Biosci | Pages : 98-101
DOI : 10.36346/sarjbab.2022.v04i04.003
Syzygium cumini and Achras zapota leaves were easily available and commonly used in our day –to-day life. The present study aimed at the in-vitro comparative study of anthelmintic activity of aqueous extracts of leaves of Syzygium cumini, Achras zapota and mixed. The fruits were extracted separately with distilled water by maceration method .The various concentrations of the extract (50,100, 200mg/ml) respectively were screened for their anthelmintic activity using Pheritima posthuma. The activity was comparable with the standard drug albendazole. When the concentrations of the extract are increased, a gradual increase in anthelmintic activity is observed. The study involved the determination of time of paralysis (P) and time of death (D) of the worms. Aqueous extract of Syzygium cumini, Achras zapota and mixed showed anthelmintic activity but mixed extract was more efficient anthelmintic activity against Indian earthworms. The data were found statistically significant by using one way ANOVA (P< 0.0001).
Khalil Ismail Abid Mohammed, Saad Hasan Mohammed Ali, Wifaq M. Ali, Suha A. AL-Fakhar, Jinan M. Mousa
South Asian Res J Bio Appl Biosci | Pages : 94-97
DOI : 10.36346/sarjbab.2022.v04i04.002
The study was carried out to detection of H.pylori in (218) patients who attended two teaching hospitals in Baghdad. The diagnosis is done by Immunochromatography methods. Stools and blood samples were taken from each patient as well as other (30) healthy control matching in age. The study included measurement the Levels of Interleukin-17, Interleukin-23, and Alkaline phosphatase in sera of patients and control .The result indicated presence of H pylori antigen in 115 cases 59 cases of males and 51 of females , Also, the result indicated increasing levels of IL-17 and IL-23 and Alkaline phosphatase in patients sera in comparison with healthy control.
Zaid Naji Hassan, Kassim Mohanad A, Maan Abdul Azeez Shafeeq
South Asian Res J Bio Appl Biosci | Pages : 56-93
DOI : 10.36346/sarjbab.2022.v04i04.001
Pesticide durability lasts to be one of the greatest significant subjects’ confrontations with agricultural output. The defy in pesticide impedance and its administration is represented by the status of the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). This extremely offensive pest has a considerable tendency for evolving pesticide durability as of its biotic features, and situations of impedance to furthermost categories of insecticides utilized for its organization have been perceived. In conflict with pesticide durability in the western blossom thrips, quite a few insecticide impedance supervisions (IRM) approaches have been progressing about the universe and these conversations. Effective approaches depend on non-insecticidal strategies, for instance, biotic and cultural monitoring and steward vegetable durability, to diminish inhabitants’ compressions, alternations amid pesticides of the diverse method of labor categories to maintain insecticide effectiveness, impedance observation, specimen to define the necessity for insecticide implementation and instruction to guarantee suitable operation. Further cautious insecticide utilization is conceivable by the progress of fully-initiated financial sill for extra harvesting organizations. Though cultivators will carry on to trust insecticides as a portion of western-blossom-thrips- and thrips-spread virus administration added effective administration of these pests will be accomplished by deeming their administration in the situation of complete united pest administration, through IRM being the main constituent of those complete approaches.
South Asian Res J Bio Appl Biosci | Pages : 74-85
DOI : 10.36346/sarjbab.2022.v04i03.001
A study was carried out to evaluate the combined effect of planting date, organic fertilization and cabbage varieties on cabbage and turnip aphids. The randomized complete blocks design with three replications and two varieties were used. Three organic fertilizers; compost (10 t.ha-1); the mixture: poultry manure 25% and compost 75% (10 t.ha-1); poultry manure (10 t.ha-1); the positive control, the mineral fertilizer NPK 20-10-10 (300 kg. ha-1) and the negative control. Aphid and syrphids counting was weekly done from the second week after transplantation to two weeks before harvest. The results obtained showed that Brevicoryne brassicae, Lipaphis pseudobrassicae, are present in all plots. Infestation peaks ranged from 21 to 28 DAT for B. brassicae and between 21 and 35 DAT for L. pseudobrassicae. The abundance of aphids of both species was significantly lower (P=0.0001) in plots with poultry manure compared to plots without fertilization. The dry season was more favourable than the rainy season for both species. B. brassicae was more important in compost plots and mixing on the other hand L. pseudobrassicae was more common in mixing plots. Green Coronet hosted more aphids in both growing seasons than Green Boy, 10.80±2.13 to 23.97±3.13 and 11.13±1.66 to 39.04±2.83 respectively for B. brassicae and L. pseudobrassicae in the dry season and 0.00±0.00 to 2.28±0.97 and 0.06±0.04 to 4.19±0.90 respectively in the rainy season. For average cabbage yields, Green Coronet recorded 15.38 t.ha-1 and Green Boy 16.16 t.ha-1 in the dry and in the rainy seasons, Green Coronet recorded 12.00 t.ha-1 and Green Boy 12.35 t.ha-1. In summary, poultry manure and mixture are recommended because they give the highest yields for both cabbage varieties.
South Asian Res J Bio Appl Biosci | Pages : 64-68
DOI : 10.36346/sarjbab.2022.v04i02.004
The study was aimed to assess and determine fungal load and species isolated from cake samples sold in Kano, Northern Nigeria. A qualitative test was performed to ascertain the types of fungi that were present in the cake samples using standard microbiological techniques. Data obtained was expressed as Mean ±SD and compared with ICMSF Standard. A total of four hundred and fifty (450) cake samples from three selling points (markets, shops and bakeries) of the three senatorial districts of Kano State were collected and analyzed. The mean fungal counts of the cake samples analyzed ranged from 5.35 x 101 - 36.1 x 102cfu/g (Nassarawa- Tofa). Colonial morphology showed the presence of four fungal genera (Aspergillus, Rhizopus, Mucor and Penicillium). The frequency of occurrence of fungal species isolated from the cake samples; were as follows Aspergillus fumigatus 6 (11.5%), Aspergillus niger 29 (55.7%), Rhizopus 7 (13.5%), Mucor spp 5 (9.6%), and Penicillium spp 5 (9.6%). Aspergillus niger has the highest frequency of 29 (55.7%), while Mucor spp has the lowest frequency of 5 (9.6%). A total 52 (11.55%) fungal species were isolated altogether from the cake samples. All the fungal species isolated in this study were extensively contaminants. It is concluded that some cakes sold in Kano, Northern Nigeria contain some fungi.
Zainab Y. Makarfi, Muhammad Ali, Lurwan Mu’azu, Rukayya H. Sudawa
South Asian Res J Bio Appl Biosci | Pages : 69-73
DOI : 10.36346/sarjbab.2022.v04i02.005
Drinking water needs to be treated in order to remove impurities and bacteria to meet the quantity guidelines which satisfy for drinking water requirement according to world health organization. The aim of the study is utilizing Moringa oleifera seeds suspension in ground water purification as coagulating and softening agent. Ground water was collected from four different locations at Challawa industrial area of Kumbotso Local Government Kano State, Nigeria. The water samples were subjected to physico-chemical analysis using standard laboratory methods. Suspension from the seeds of Moringa oleifera was prepared in different concentration and used in the process of purifying the water as coagulating and softening agent. The physico-chemical analysis of the water samples showed that he samples have turbidity of between 108 – 126 NTU, which indicated that the samples have high turbidity with moderate hardness ranged from 75.25 - 125.61 mg/L. The pH of the water samples ranges from 6.7 - 6.8. Both the water samples were colorless, tasteless and odorless. The result showed that different concentration of Moringa seed suspension has a pronounce effect as coagulating and softening agent. The seed suspension reduces the turbidity and hardness of ground water from up to 82% and 42% respectively after exposing for 90 minutes. Therefore, Moringa seeds suspension can be regarded as one of the natural coagulating and water softening agent and could be used for turbidity reduction and water softening.
South Asian Res J Bio Appl Biosci | Pages : 51-63
DOI : 10.36346/sarjbab.2022.v04i02.003
Rustumihia is one of the biggest WWTP (Waste Water Treatment Plant) based in Baghdad the capital of Iraq. The effluent treated wastewater, were used for irrigation by the farmers nearby the Rustumihia WWTP. The growth of Iraqi population and limited development in the infrastructure to the treatment plants in Iraq like old Rustumihia project. There is a need to assess the treated effluents water that is used for irrigation. Wastewater considered as a key alternative water resource as it can be used in agriculture field to reimburse shortages in water need. In developed countries like Iraq, the irrigation by using wastewater has a long history. Continues lagging in WWTP maintenance and its infrastructure could cause many problems for the treated effluent that has its own effect on health and environment aspects. Therefore, by applying a strong management practices, for example advanced and appropriate treated and irrigated knowledge, can be used later to gain significant advantages in the same time minimizing health risks. This article discussed the treated wastewater used by farmers nearby Rustumihia treatment plant and focus on the challenges linked with wastewater irrigation.
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