Classes of Ghulab along with Medicinal Constituents for Human Health
Muhammad Arshad Ullah, Ali Hassan, Ameer Hamza
SAR J Med
| Pages : 65-67
DOI : 10.36346/sarjm.2023.v04i04.001
Nine groups of roses namely Micro-miniatures, Miniatures, Mini-Floras, Floribundas, Grandifloras, Hybrid Teas, Climbers, Shrubs and Old Garden Roses are utilized considering their specific purposes. The hips of wild rose have very high concentration of Vitamin C, almost thrice that of the citrus fruits have. The Chinese use the flowers to prepare a drink which acts as an energy stimulant, blood tonic and also works in case of digestive irregularities. Petals of R. damascene are steam distilled to produce true Bulgarian rose oil used in 96 percent of all women’s perfumes. Medicinally it is used to alleviate depression and anxiety. Rose hips also known as seed pot is the round portion just below the petals of rose flower which contains the seeds of a rose plant. Fresh rose hips contain high concentration of Vitamin C and can be used for treatment of cold and flu and Vitamin C deficiency. Moreover, they are also used for stomach disorders like stomach acid deficiency, Gall stones and Gall bladder ailments, Kidney disorders, increasing immune function during exhaustion etc. In food and manufacturing industry they are also used in tea, jam etc. as a natural source of Vitamin C. Antibacterial (Antimicrobial) and Antifungal Activity of Extracts from Rose Antimicrobials or anti-bacterial are generally compounds that kill or slow down the growth of bacteria. Extracts of rose petals have been reported to show anti-bacterial activity against many pathogenic bacteria. The extracts of petals possess anthocyanins that have high antioxidant property as well as anti-inflammatory activity. Anthocyanins are basically polyphenols belonging to the family of compounds known as flavonoids. They are largest group of water soluble pigments present in nature and responsible for red, blue, purple and orange coloration of many fruits, flowers and vegetables. They are distinguished from other flavonoids by their capacity to form flavyliumcations. Rose petal water has also been used as an eye wash and mouth wash. Besides containing anthocyanins the petals of rose are also reported to possess carotenoids, proanthocyanidins, essential oils, Tellimagrandin I, plant acids and Rugosin B. The alcohol Geraniol is the chief constituent of the liquid portion of rose oil, which upon oxidation yields Citral- an aldehyde. Thoil of rose also contains 1-citronellol. Rosa canina L. petals have been reported to increase effectiveness of many antibiotics against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Recent research shows that extracts from rose petals show good antimicrobial activity against cultures of E.coli, S.pneumoniae and P. aeruginosa. As per the study, the alcoholic extract showed the best activity against different pathogenic bacteria followed by the aqueous extract and then the petroleum ether extract. Antibacterial activity of different parts of rose plant has also been carried out where in comparison was made between methanolic and ethanolic extracts of petals, stems and roots of red and yellow rose plant. The report highlighted the antibacterial effect of red rose petal as compared to other extracts. The extract was reported to be highly effective against cultures of E. coli, and P. aeruginosa. The comparison of ethanolic extracts of petals and leaves of red rose and orange rose showed maximum activity against P. aeruginosa. A recent study reported moderate to broad spectrum antimicrobial activity of essential oil and different extracts of R. damascena petals against varied gram positive and gram negative bacteria, acid fas bacteria and fungi. Antifungal activity against Penicilliumnotatum, A. niger and Candida albicans and antibacterial activity mainly against gram positive S. aureus, B.subtilis, S.pyogenes and gram negative Acinetobacter baumannii is notable. Aqueous extract of white rose (Rosa damascene) have been studied for their anti-oxidative and cytotoxic properties. The extract has been reported to display excellent cytotoxic action towards the human tumor cell line. At lower doses the extract was reported to show decrease in blood parameters like fasting glucose, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen and uric acid. The work also reported reduced level of alkaline phosphatase, glutamine pyruvate transaminase, glutamine oxaloacetate transaminase and lipid peroxide level in rats receiving oral administration of acetone extract at 50 mg/kg body weight.