South Asian Research Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences (SARJPS)
South Asian Res J Pharm Sci
Dr. Md. Habibur Rahman
Country of Origin:
“South Asian Research Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences” ISSN 2664-4142 (Print) & ISSN 2664-6749 (Online) is peer reviewed, open access Academic and Research Journal Published by SAR Publication, Bangladesh.
This Journal publishes Research Articles, Review Articles, Case Studies and other scientific studies within all the fields of Pharmaceutical Sciences.
This Journal is aimed to publish Research Articles, Review Articles, Case Studies and other scientific studies within all the fields of Pharmaceutical Sciences.
Scope of Journal
This Journal publishes Articles in all disciplines under Pharmaceutical Sciences and their related disciplines like -
Pharmaceutics, Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Pharmacy Practice, Pharmacology, Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, Pharmaceutical Analysis, Pharmaceutical Quality Assurance, Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Pharmaceutical Microbiology, Pharmaceutical Biochemistry, Hospital and Clinical Pharmacy and Industrial Pharmacy, Physical Pharmacy, Analytical chemistry, Biochemistry, Organic and Inorganic chemistry, Pharmacogenomics, Pharmaeconomics, Pharmacovigilence, Toxicology, Clinical trials, Pharm marketing, drug design and development, Formulation studies etc.
Dr. Md. Habibur Rahman
Principal, Rahman Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research(RIPSR), Tepesia, Kamarkuchi, Sonapur, Kamrup (M) Assam, Pin-782402, India Email: habiburruh[at]gmail.com
Dr. Dibyajyoti Saha
Associate Professor & Chairman, Department Of Pharmacy, BGC Trust University Bangladesh, Chittagong, Bangladesh Email: saha.dibyajyoti[at]gmail.com
Md. Sahab Uddin
Department of Pharmacy Southeast University Dhaka-1213 Bangladesh Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Nesrin Fouad Taha Abdel-Halim
Ass. Prof. of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Industrial Pharmacy Laboratory, Medical and Pharmaceutical Chemistry Department, Division of Pharmaceutical Industries, National Research Centre (NRC), 33 EL Bohouth st. (former EL Tahrir st.), Dokki, Giza, Egypt Email: nesrintaha77[at]yahoo.com
Dr. V. Dhanapal
Professor & H.O.D Sanjo College of Pharmaceutical Studies, Vellapara, Palakkad, Kerala, India -678702 Email: vddpaul[at]gmail.com
Dr. Ammar A. Razzak Mahmood Kubba
Assist prof., College of Pharmacy, Dept. of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Bab-Al-Mouadam-10001, Iraq Email: kubbaammar1963[at]gmail.com
Dr. Mahesh Prakashrao Pawar
KVPS Maharabi Ahilyabai Holkar College of Pharmacy, Boradi, Maharashtra 425428, India Email: maheson[at]rediffmail.com
Dr. Alok Kumar Shukla
Amity Institute of Pharmacy, Near Malhaur Station, Gomati Nagar Extension, Lucknow, UP, India Email: alokshukla51[at]rediffmail.com
Dr. U.S. Sharma
Professor & Director, Sir Madanlal Institute of Pharmacy, Alampur Huaz, Agra Road, Etawah, Uttar Pradesh-206001, India Email: us_cology[at]rediffmail.com
South Asian Res J Pharm Sci | Pages : 33-39
DOI : 10.36346/sarjps.2020.v02i02.005
The article considers the efficacy of use short-term inhalations of high-concentrated oxygen with the addition of chamomile oil on the state of local immunity in adults with sore throat. Materials and methods: The study involved 35 patients aged 25 to 40 years (mean - 34.5 ± 5.71 years, 20 women, and 15 men) with a diagnosis sore throat. Observed were randomized into 2 groups: in group 1 the inhalations with high concentrated oxygen (n=18) were used, in group 2 is treated by inhalations of high concentrated oxygen with Chamomile oil (n=17). Inhalation was conducted with 3 breathing per minute three times (totally 3 minutes) twice per day. The efficacy of therapy was determined by the period of the decrease in severity clinical manifestations and their complete disappearance. The results of the study: The reason for the treatment in all patients was an increase in body temperature to 37.5-38.9°C, the presence of symptoms of intoxication, varying severity of sore throat, a feeling of dryness/sore throat and dry cough. Patients were self-evaluated the severity of sore throat at the period of treatment, at 3.8 ± 0.78 points in group 1 and 3.9 ± 0.86 points in group 2, difficulty in nasal breathing - at 4.1 ± 0.96 points and 4.2 ± 0.85 points, respectively; the severity of hyperemia - by 4.9 ± 0.30 points and 4.8 ± 0.46 points; an increase in tonsils - by 2.4 ± 0.40 and 2.3 ± 0.53 points in groups 1 and 2. In 17.6% people of the 2-nd group, already on the 3rd day, the pharyngoscopic picture completely normalized, while in the 1-st group this result was not attained. By the 4th day of observation, pharyngoscopic signs were absent in 41.2% of patients of the 2nd group and only in 16.7% of people of the 1st group. On the 5th day during the oropharyngeal examination, 55.6% of the 1-st group examined retained mild hyperemia of the mucous membranes of the palatine arches and small tongue, while in the 2nd group this symptom was recorded only in 17.6% of cases. According to the scoring, until the end of the observation period (5-7 days) in both groups - with the Oxygen Breathing Mixture Natural and Oxygen Breathing Mixture Sea Minerals Chamomile inhalations, hyperemia in the oropharynx significantly decreased. The effectiveness of the Oxygen Breathing Mixture Sea Minerals Chamomile inhalations was significantly reduced and the symptoms exceeded the effectiveness of Oxygen Breathing Mixture Natural by 3.5 times (p <0.05). The severity of pain in the follow-up dynamics decreased to 1.7 ± 0.18 points in the 1st group and 1.3 ± 0.15 in the 2nd group (p <0.05). The therapeutic effectiveness of Oxygen Breathing Mixture Sea Minerals Chamomile exceeded the efficiency of Oxygen Breathing Mixture Natural by 30.8%. A significant improvement in nasal breathing was observed on the 5th day of observation - up to 1.7 ± 0.43 points in group 2 versus 2.8 ± 0.51 points in group 1 (p <0.05), with the effectiveness of Oxygen Breathing Mixture Sea Minerals Chamomile-64.7%. Symptoms of intoxication and pharyngoscopic signs of the inflammatory process in patients of the 2-nd group stopped on average 1.5 days faster compared with patients of the 1st group. The level of sIgA in saliva tended to normalize (from 0.18 ± 0.08 to 0.21 ± 0.09 g / l, p> 0.05) in the group 1. The normalization of the content in the group 2 was observed saliva secretion of an initially low level of sIgA (from 0.16 ± 0.03 to 0.34 ± 0.06 g / l, p <0.05). The total duration of acute respiratory viral infections in patients receiving Oxygen Breathing Mixture Sea Minerals Chamomile was on average 3 days shorter than in patients of the 1st group.
South Asian Res J Pharm Sci | Pages : 25-32
DOI : 10.36346/sarjps.2020.v02i02.004
This research is aimed to evaluate the level of heavy metals and pesticides residues in the commonly consumed soft drink within Kazaure town. Twenty-five (25) samples of different soft drink brands was analysed for 10 organochlorines and 6 organophosphorus pesticides. The 10 organochlorines pesticides evaluated cover wide spectrum of chlorinated pesticides. The 6 organophosphorus pesticides tested are the most commonly used pesticides. Analysis was conducted using Gas Chromatograph with Electron Capture Detector using a capillary column for analysing organochlorine pesticides and Gas Chromatograph with Nitrogen Phosphorus Detector using a capillary column for analysing organophosphorus pesticides. Final confirmation was carried out by GC-MS. While the metals were analysed using AAS. The result showed that the average concentration of all the ten (10) organochlorines pesticides evaluated were 0.11, 2.99,0.22 and 0.26 μg/kg for α HCH, γ-HCH, δ-HCH and heptachlor respectively while β-HCH, DDT, Aldrin, Dieldrin Endosulfan and chlordane were not detected in all the brand of the soft drinks analyzed. The overall average of all the organochlorines pesticdes were found to be 3.71 μg/kg. The concentration of organophosphorous pesticide were found in the 25 samples of soft drink selected, 0.74μg/kg and 0.17μg/kg were found as the average concentration of Chlorpyrifos and malathion respectively. While the average concentration of the total organophosphorous pesticides obtained was 0.89 μg/kg. Chlorpyrifos and malathion were found in 48 and 44% of the 25 samples which range from 0.17 to 2.89 and 0.13 to 1.11μg/kg respectively. The parathion, merphos and tricresylphosphate were not detected in all the soft drinks tested. The level of metal residue revealed that Cu, Cr, Cd, Fe, Pb, Zn and Ni were found in 68%, 56%,36%,88% 40% ,80% and 24% respectively in the 25 samples analysed. However, Cu, Cd and Zn were within the permissible maximum levels(PML), while Cr, Fe, Pb, Ni were found above the PML 16%, 48%, 12% and Ni 12% respectively in the 25 samples of soft drink analysed. Hence, soft drink generally can be served as source of important elements for human health and development but can be as a source of other substance like pesticide and some metals which can be toxic to human.
South Asian Res J Pharm Sci | Pages : 21-24
DOI : 10.36346/sarjps.2020.v02i02.003
For thousands of years, medicinal plants have been used to treat various diseases. Traditional medicine is still popular among people today and many people use the properties of medicinal plants to treat diseases. Some herbs are better known than others, both fresh and dried. In this article, we will investigate the properties of some medicinal plants.
Yadhukrishnan P U, Nolin Johncy, Shilpa R, Naveen Kumar P, Mohamed Thayub S, Daniel Sundar Singh, S
South Asian Res J Pharm Sci | Pages : 16-20
DOI : 10.36346/sarjps.2020.v02i02.002
Background: A medication error is a failure in the treatment process that leads to potential harm to the patient. Objectives: The study aimed to detect common prescribing and dispensing medication errors and frequency of medication errors reported by healthcare providers (HCP). Methodology: This observational prospective study was conducted for 10 months from January 2019 to October 2019 in an inpatient setting of a tertiary care hospital in Mangalore using Incident reporting form. The severity levels of medication errors have been analyzed by using the National Coordinating Council for Medication Error Reporting and Prevention (NCCMERP) proposed index for categorizing medication errors. Results: On evaluating the medication errors, 30.18% were prescribing errors, 22.64% were dispensing errors. Majority of the errors were reported by Clinical pharmacist (62.6%), followed by Nurses (24.52%).The drugs acting on CVS were the most common class of drugs in which errors occurred (27 %). Most of the errors in our study resulted in (Error No Harm) 86.3% (category B, C and D), (No Error) 13.5% (category A), 1.2 % (category E, F, G, H) resulted in (Error Harm). No incidence of Error Death was reported. Conclusion: The incidence of medication errors was significantly high and it is essential to establish medication error reporting system and the educational programme for drug prescribers and nurses concerning drug therapy are urgently needed to avoid medication errors and to improve patient safety by clinical pharmacists.
South Asian Res J Pharm Sci | Pages : 12-15
DOI : 10.36346/sarjps.2020.v02i02.001
Background and Aim: The spread of ESBL in Escherichia coli isolates has led to increased antibiotic resistance and mortality. Therefore, the present study was performed to investigate the susceptibility and antibiotic resistance patterns of ESBL-producing E. coli strains isolated from patients referred to Zanjan hospitals. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive-analytical study, 260 urinary tract infection specimens were identified in Zanjan hospitals in 2019, 100 E. coli isolates were identified by standard bacteriological methods. Antibiotic susceptibility of the isolates was determined by disk diffusion method and ESBL-producing isolates were identified by combined disk method. Results: The most resistant to ampicillin (72%) and tetracycline (50%) were the most sensitive to amikacin (94%) and nitrofurantoin (90%), respectively. A total of 41 samples were identified as the final ESBL producer. Conclusion: The results indicate a relatively high prevalence of ESBL in E. coli isolates in Zanjan. Given the high prevalence rate, it is necessary to monitor the resistance pattern of gram negative isolates in Zanjan. Given the high percentage of resistance to E. coli isolates to antibiotics and to reduce the spread of resistance genes, sensitivity testing is recommended to select more effective antibiotics even for outpatient isolates.
South Asian Res J Pharm Sci | Pages : 8-11
DOI : 10.36346/sarjps.2020.v02i01.003
Haridra (Curcuma longa Linn, Family- Zingiberaceace) is the dried and ground rhizomes or tuberous underground stems of a perennial plant, used for the management of different diseases in classical texts. It has anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, anti-oxidant, etc. properties, which has been proved by various studies and experiments. In Charak samhita, Haridra is mentioned in Lekhaniya mahakashaya, Kusthagna mahakashaya, mentioned in compound formulations like Mahatiktaka ghrita, Mahakhadira ghrita for Skin disease. In Susruta samhita, it is mentioned under Haridradi, Mustadi, Lakshadi gana, described in ghee (gritha) preparation like Siddharthaka and Pancha gavya; and in the management of Diabetes (pramehas). In Astanga hrdaya, it is mentioned in Haridradi, Mustadi gana, Tikta rasa dravya and as one of the best drug for Diabetes (Prameha). It is hoped, this paper will provide many important information related to Haridra which will help further researchers to search data of Haridra and in the treatment purpose.
Abdulrahman Kloy, Jamal Ahmad, Umar Yusuf, Musa Muhammad
South Asian Res J Pharm Sci | Pages : 4-7
DOI : 10.36346/sarjps.2020.v02i01.002
Medicinal herbs have long been used as traditional medicine to treat infectious diseases. The increasing use of synthetic antibiotics today has led to an increase in resistant strains and high side effects. In this regard, every year many researchers from this huge plant source are sending a range of secondary compounds to the consumer market for the treatment of human diseases. Therefore, the identification of herbs with antimicrobial effects can help to produce new drugs with a broad spectrum of effects. This study, based on scientific references, describes information on the antimicrobial effects of rosemary.
Fariba Rahmani, Ali Rasooli, Arash Khani, Davod Tarbiat-nazloo
South Asian Res J Pharm Sci | Pages : 1-3
DOI : 10.36346/sarjps.2020.v02i01.001
Background and purpose: Staphylococcus aureus is a common pathogen of nosocomial infections. Increased infections caused by this bacterium in developing countries have led to many problems. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of antibiotic resistance of S. aureus isolated from urinary tract infections to some commonly used antibiotics. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional descriptive study, 100 S. aureus isolates were collected from patients with urinary tract infections. These isolates were identified using standard laboratory and culture methods in a specific medium. Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method was used to evaluate the antibiotic susceptibility pattern of the strains. Results: Phenotypic evaluation of antibiotic resistance pattern of S. aureus strains showed the highest resistance to antibiotics methicillin and penicillin (91%), erythromycin (86%) and gentamicin (75%) and the highest sensitivity was related to The antibiotics were nitrofurantoin (95%) and vancomycin (86%). Conclusions: The present study showed increased resistance to different antibiotics by S. aureus, which is a serious warning for treatment of S. aureus infections in the area. Therefore, in order to prevent increased resistance to other antibiotics, it is necessary to refrain from unnecessary administration of available antibiotics.
Sule B. Ugbede, Sodangi C. Joseph, Kpur H. Gloria, Musa U. Baba, Famuyiwa Samuel O, Amina Lawal
South Asian Res J Pharm Sci | Pages : 100-104
DOI : 10.36346/sarjps.2019.v01i04.001
Trichomonas vaginalis is a flagellated parasite that causes sexually transmitted infections mainly in women. The disease found with other sexually transmitted infections such as Chlamydia, Gonorrhea, Syphilis and Herpes simplex virus type II is a sensitive marker of highly sexual behaviour. It causes pelvic inflammatory disease and adverse pregnancy outcomes. The parasite, T. vaginalis, causes Trichomoniasis, a disease with significant medical, social and economic implications. The data presented in this report showed that Trichomoniasis caused by T. vaginalis remains the only reported sexually transmitted parasitic disease in Nigeria. The progressive abandoning of condom use relative to discomfort and linked to forgetting the risk of Trichomonas vaginalis and the increase of poverty may partially explain the increase in the annual number of urinogenital trichomoniasis cases in Nigeria. Metronidazole has been the treatment of choice for women for decades, and single dose has been considered the first line of therapy. However, high rate of retest positive are found among T. vaginalis infected person after single dose of Metronidazole treatment. Evidence from the review indicates the need for the concern stakeholders to attempt a holistic approach towards eradicating the disease in our environment.
South Asian Res J Pharm Sci | Pages : 91-99
DOI : 10.36346/sarjps.2019.v01i03.003
Abstract: Background: A road traffic accident is an incident on a way or street open to public traffic, resulting in one or more persons being killed or injured, and involving at least one moving vehicle..Ethiopia, a developing country in Africa, has witnessed a number of the most risky roads in the world and has followed to overtake a determined road spreading out guiding principle in the past 15 years. Objective: To assess the prevalence and associated factors of Road Traffic Accidents in Chuko town, Sidama zone, Southern Ethiopia from March 27 to April 4, 2009 E.C. Method: Community based cross sectional study was done in Chuko Town with a total sample size of 422 from March 27 to April 4, 2009 E.C. The quantitative data was checked, edited, and entered to SPSS software version 20. The study employed logistic regression and chi-square analysis models. Data from qualitative was analyzed manually then triangulated with the quantitative one. The result is presented using descriptive statistics using tables, graphs and charts. Result: A total of 422 respondents participated in our study with 100% respondent rate. Among them, 244 (57.8%) were male and the rest 178 (42.2%) were female. Among the participants recruited on data collection, 99(23.5%) of them had previous history of RTA. Concerning the causes of RTA, 141(33.4%) majority of them were caused by poor road condition followed by 119(28.2%) by over speed. The results from FGDs and interviews showed that the Town has traffic flow and motor bikes were most common causes of the accident. It also revealed that the Road and Traffic Office had worked on public education even if it’s not enough. Conclusion and Recommendation: The study found out that RTA is big problem of the Town and the Town is experiencing it. The most common cause of RTA is poor road condition and Motor Bikes are most commonly involved in the accident. Legalizing Motor Bikes, public meeting and improving the road condition are among the recommendations given to various groups.
South Asian Res J Pharm Sci | Pages : 83-90
DOI : 10.36346/sarjps.2019.v01i03.002
Abstract: Background: Mother-to-child transmission of HIV is the most significant route of HIV infection in children and by far the largest source of HIV infection in children below the age of 15 years. Objectives: the aim of this study was to assess current practices and future intention of lactating mothers on VCT and infant feeding in relation to prevention of MTCT of HIV in DURH. Methods: Institutional based cross sectional quantitative survey was conducted from February, 1 to February 10 2008 E.C using standardized questionnaire, among lactating mothers in DURH selected using probability proportional to size. Non probability conveniences (purposive) sampling technique was used .The data was exported in to SPSS software version 20 and analyzed. Official written letter of cooperation were secured from DURH to the concerned body, and verbal consents of the study participants was obtained. Finally the result was presented by using tables and charts. Result: A total of 271 (100%) mothers participated in the study. The majority of the study participants were in the age group of 25 to 34 (61.8%) years. The majority were married 219 (80.8%), house wives in occupation, 113 (41.7%), and had Grade 7-12 that 69 (25.5%) attended high school education. There was statistically association between knowledge and the respondents’ educational status (p=0.037), association between attitude towards VCT and the respondents’ educational status (p=0.010), as well as between attitude towards VCT and occupation (p=0.021) and there was statistically association between practice towards VCT and the respondents’ religion (p=0.019), as well as between practice towards VCT and monthly income (p=0.041). Conclusion and Recommendation: The findings from this study in relation to prevention of HIV transmission revealed that mothers had good knowledge of HIV/AIDS and on MTCT and PMTCT. The study participants also have good attitude towards VCT which may have a contribution to intention of the mothers to have HIV test. Therefore to increasing utilization of PMTCT, infant feeding and VCT it requires to address reinforce the importance of exclusive breast feeding during antenatal and postnatal follow up, prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) service shall be accessed to some groups of the community such as housemaid and housewives as much as possible to get information utilize the services, and establish communication/ referral network between health facilities and organizations working on HIV/AIDS.
South Asian Res J Pharm Sci | Pages : 75-82
DOI : 10.36346/sarjps.2019.v01i03.001
Background: Injuries and violence pose a major public health and developmental problem globally. Each year over 5 million people around the world die as a result of injury. Injuries are ranked among the leading cause of death and disability particularly in low income and middle income countries where they are growing insignificance, largely as a consequences of epidemiologic, demographic and socioeconomic transitions. Moreover, it is in these very setting that the vital statistics and routine health information are often seriously lacking. Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of trauma cases visited at emergency OPD of DURTH and to describe the magnitude and pattern of injury. Methods: Health institutional based cross sectional study was conducted at emergency OPD from APRIL 20, 2008-MAY 20, 2008 E.C and the data was collected using questionnaires by using convenience sampling technique. All injury cases come to EOPD was studied. A questioner was used to collect the data and the data entered to computer and was analysed by using SPSS version 20. Ethical clearance was obtained from Rift valley University Hawassa campus before the study conducted and the hospital management. Result: 128 patients were visited EOPD of DURH during the study period. The commonest mechanism of injury was RTA, 42(32.8%), followed by falling related injury and cut by sharp instruments, 22(17.2%), 20(15.6%) respectively. More males had RTA, cut and falling related injuries compared to females. The commonest outcomes which resulted in severe injuries were RTA, stab and falling related injuries. Conclusion: The magnitude of injury in the hospital was considerably high. Appropriate prevention strategies should be designed and implemented against RTA, falling related injury and cut by sharp instruments.
South Asian Res J Pharm Sci | Pages : 68-74
DOI : 10.36346/sarjps.2019.v01i02.005
Personal care products and facial cosmetics are commonly used by millions of consumers on a daily basis. Direct application of cosmetics on human skin makes it vulnerable to a wide variety of ingredients. Despite the protecting role of skin against exogenous contaminants, some of the ingredients in cosmetic products are able to penetrate the skin and to produce systemic exposure. Consumers' knowledge of the potential risks of the frequent application of cosmetic products should be improved. While regulations exist in most of the high-income countries, in low income countries there is a lack of similar standards. In most countries for which these legal regulations have been identified, restrictions on the permissible level of heavy metals are strict. There is a need for enforcement of existing rules, and rigorous assessment of the effectiveness of these regulations. The occurrence of metals in cosmetic products is of concern for three principal reasons: (i) the use of cosmetic products could represent a possible source of population-wide exposure daily, and often long-term exposure to metals in cosmetic products (ii) metals can accumulate in the body over time, and (iii) a number of them are known to exhibit different chronic health effects, such as cancer, contact dermatitis, developmental, neurological and reproductive disorders, brittle hair and hair loss. Some metals are potent endocrine disruptors and respiratory toxins. Moreover, some metals, such as Cd, As, Pb, Hg and Sb, are exceptionally toxic with a wide variety of chronic health effects, whereas Cr, Ni and Co are well known skin sensitizers. Since the issue of heavy metals as deliberate cosmetic ingredients has been addressed, attention is turned to the presence of these substances as impurities.
South Asian Res J Pharm Sci | Pages : 63-67
DOI : 10.36346/sarjps.2019.v01i02.004
An individual's dietary and supplement strategies can influence markedly their physical performance. Issues related to knowledge of nutrition and dietary supplementation (DS) are understudied in professional athletes. Supplements nowadays are used with the aim of improve body composition, of which the origins are multiplex in structure. Many approaches to improve the response to resistance training are the use of pre-/post-/in between workout nutritional interventions; with beverages garnering significant interest. The health benefits and risks of dietary supplement use are controversial as there is no visible immediate benefits observed. Sports nutrition recommendations for endurance exercise however remains a complex issue with often opposing views and advice by various health care professionals. Many athletes, at all levels of competition, place great emphasis on the use of dietary supplements, but of all the factors that determine athletic performance, supplements can play only a very small role. Compared with factors such as talent, training, tactics, and motivation, nutrition has a small effect on performance, and supplements can be no more than a minor part of the athlete’s nutrition strategy.
South Asian Res J Pharm Sci | Pages : 58-62
DOI : 10.36346/sarjps.2019.v01i02.003
Athletes utilize numerous strategies to reduce body weight or body fat and to increase stamina prior to competition. Personalized nutrition in athletic populations aims to optimize health, body composition, and exercise performance by targeting dietary recommendations to an individual's genetic profile. Additionally, athletes’ nutritional requirements may vary widely depending on sport, position, timing of season, and training vs rest day. Bodily hydration during sporting activity is one of the best indicators of health in athletes and can be a limiting factor for sport performance. Treatment for athletes is primarily to increase energy availability and often requires a team approach including a sport physician, sports dietitian, physiologist, and psychologist. Maximizing athletic performance is a passion that athletes, coaches, athlete support professionals, and sports scientists share. A thorough understanding of the basics of all aspects of human physiology and the ability of the body to adapt to the environmental stress of exercise training is the foundation we use to explain the incredible athletic and sport performances that are commonplace in today’s world.
South Asian Res J Pharm Sci | Pages : 53-57
DOI : 10.36346/sarjps.2019.v01i02.002
Cosmetic items contain a wide scope of chemicals to which we are exposed every day. All cosmetics were separated into 3 classifications: rinse-off items (shower gel, shampoo, toothpaste, liquid soap, private soap, shaving foam) leave-on items (body cream, face cream, hand cream, antiperspirant, sunscreen, post-shaving astringent) and make-up ones (lipstick, lip-balm, foundation, nail polish).The utilization of a significant number of these substances is permitted inside specific limits, because of their toxicity at higher concentrations. Other significant viewpoints ought to be considered as, for example, the likelihood of long-term effects. In the light of the continuous and close nature of the contact on skin and mucosa with these items, it is significant that they don't contain conceivably perilous substances. Additionally, the everyday use and continuous exposition of people to a wide scope of personal consideration items and to various types of chemicals, got from a few sources, may cause the alleged "cocktail effect" because of the synergistic interaction of various substances and, likewise, the "added substance effect" in light of the nearness of a similar ingredient in numerous items. Actually, every one of the ingredients utilized in cosmetic items meet certain regulatory prerequisites. Notwithstanding, the utilization of numerous substances is permitted inside specific limits, because of their toxicity at higher concentrations.
South Asian Res J Pharm Sci | Pages : 48-52
DOI : 10.36346/sarjps.2019.v01i02.001
As indicated by World Bank publication Disease Control Priorities: Improving Health and Reducing Poverty (third edition, 2017), about 20% all out health use universally originated from out-of-pocket payments in 2014. The equivalent was about 40% all out health use for low-income countries, 56% for lower-middle-income countries, and 30% for upper-middle-income countries (WHO, 2016). 33% of the world's populace needs opportune access to quality-guaranteed medicines while assessments demonstrate that in any event 10% of medicine in low-and middle-income countries (LMICs) are substandard or distorted, costing roughly US$ 31 billion every year (Global Health, 2018). Shockingly, 80% of worldwide cardiovascular passings happen in LMICs which is (halfway) because of the absence of access to healthcare including talented HR, equipped offices and medicines (Global status report on noncommunicable diseases, WHO, 2010). Cost of drugs, antibodies, and diagnostics is a noteworthy weight in LMICs round the globe. Cost of biotech drugs are much higher because of surprising expense caused by the pharmaceutical organizations for clinical preliminary. Biotech drugs have totally changed the administration of a few diseases, including malignant growth and immune system diseases. Albeit essential yet their affordability is as yet a consuming issue, particularly in LMICs.
Ernest Chanda, Professor Godfrey Azangwe, Osward Bwanga
South Asian Res J Pharm Sci | Pages : 38-47
DOI : 10.36346/sarjps.2019.v01i01.005
The purpose of this study was to analyse the International Commission of Radiation Unit (ICRU) point doses delivered to the urinary bladder and rectum with ultrasound based intracavitary brachytherapy and to evaluate late toxicity relative to the equivalent total doses delivered in 2 gray per fraction of equivalent dose (EQD2) for bladder and rectum using point based methods of reporting. This study was conducted using a quantitative retrospective research design which looked at three hundred and thirty three women who received external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) + brachytherapy (BT) between 2009 to 2013. The patients were aged 25 years and above the median age was 48. The median follow-up was 24 months and 58% of patients received 50 Gray in 25 fractions with 24 Gray in 3 fractions of BT and 42% received 46 Gray in 23 fractions to the pelvis with 26 Gray in 4 fractions of BT. BT was delivered with ring and tandem applicators. The results showed no correlation between late toxicity for rectum and total EQD2 to ICRU rectal points rs =0.1. For bladder the null hypothesis that there was no association between EQD2 and late toxicity grade for bladder was rejected and the alternative hypothesis that there was association between EDQ2 and late toxicity grade for bladder accepted, rs= 0.013. The mean rectal and urinary bladder doses at ICRU points were 59.8 % (4.5 Gy) and 62% (4.6 Gy) which was below the ICRU 38 recommended dose of lower than 80% of maximum dose to the rectum and bladder of the prescribed dose to point A.
South Asian Res J Pharm Sci | Pages : 16-37
DOI : 10.36346/sarjps.2019.v01i01.004
Pyridazine and pyridazinone derivatives compounds are biologically important compounds. Pyridazinone has carbonyl group on third carbon on pyridazine ring. Pyridazine and pyridazinone is a wonder nucleus because their derivatives give amost all types of biological activities such as such as analgesic, antiinflammatory, antimicrobial, antisecretory, antiulcer, antidepressants, neuroleptics, anxiolytics, sedative, hypnotic, tranquillizer, anticonvulsant, antiplatelet, antithrombotics, anticancer, antihistamine, cardiotonics, vasodilatators, antiarrhythmics, antidiabetic, antihypertensive, antitubercular and various other types of activities. These compounds are synthesized with the aim of novel agents those possess interesting biological activities. The present review has been focused on the pyridazine and pyridazinone derivatives with potential pharmacologica activities.
South Asian Res J Pharm Sci | Pages : 11-15
DOI : 10.36346/sarjps.2019.v01i01.003
There are around 60 global species belonging to the genus Sesbania which are commonly found to be grown in Africa, Australia, and Asia. The leaves of Sesbania grandiflora have been used in local traditional medicine since ancient times. Major chemical constituents are alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, tannin, anthraquinone, steroid, pholobatannins, and terpenoids. Isovestitol, medicarpin, sativan (isoflavonoids) and betulinic acid (tannin substance) are the major constituents responsible for antibacterial and antifungal, antioxidant, anti-urolithiatic, anticonvulsant and anxiolytic, and hepatoprotective properties. Also, the plant extract contains alkaloids, phenolics, tannins, triterpenoids, and sterols. All parts of S. grandiflora are used in traditional medicine and phytochemical investigations have been conducted on extracts of the leaves, seeds and roots of S. grandiflora to provide scientific validation of its properties.
South Asian Res J Pharm Sci | Pages : 6-10
DOI : 10.36346/sarjps.2019.v01i01.002
Psychiatric disorders are one of the major causes of global burden of diseases. Stigma remains a major impediment in the delivery of mental healthcare. It has been found across various studies that attitudes of doctors of other specialties and other healthcare professionals also contribute to stigma due to their lack of knowledge and awareness about psychiatry and mental health problems. The number of mental health professionals remains abysmally low. Community pharmacists are accessible, knowledgeable, and capable of providing mental health promotion and care in communities. This may not be a role that is recognized by the public, and men in particular. However, psychotherapy paired with medication is the most effective way to promote recovery. Examples include: Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, Exposure Therapy, Dialectical Behavior Therapy, etc. Pharmacists can play a key role by providing mental health medication management support to improve access and address patients' mental health needs.
South Asian Res J Pharm Sci | Pages : 1-5
DOI : 10.36346/sarjps.2019.v01i01.001
A novel, simple, sensitive and rapid spectrophotometric method has been developed for simultaneous estimation of Domperidone and Esomeprazole. The method involved solving simultaneous equations based on measurement of absorbance at two wavelengths, 267 nm and 300 nm, λmax of Domperidone and Esomeprazole respectively. Beer’s law was obeyed in the concentration range of 10-50 μg/ml for Domperidone for Esomeprazole 5-25 μg/ml. The method was found to be precise, accurate, and specific. The proposed method was successfully applied to estimation of Domperidone and Esomeprazole in combined tablets form with good accuracy and precision. The suggested methods were validated according to International Conference of Harmonization (ICH) guidelines and the results revealed that; they were precise and reproducible. All the obtained results were statistically compared with those of the reported method, where there was no significant difference.
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