South Asian Research Journal of Medical Sciences (SARJMS)
South Asian Res J Med Sci
Professor Aamir Abdullahi Hamza
Country of Origin:
“South Asian Research Journal of Medical Sciences” Abbreviated Key Title: South Asian Res J Med Sci ; ISSN 2664-3987 (Print) & 2664-6722 (Online) is peer reviewed, open access, Bi-Monthly Academic and Research Journal Published by SAR Publication, Bangladesh. This Journal publishes Research Articles, Review Articles, Case Studies and other scientific studies within all the fields of medical sciences written in English Language only.
Scope of Journal
This Journal publishes Articles in all disciplines under medical sciences like- Medicine: Angiology, Cardiology, Critical care medicine, Emergency medicine, Endocrinology, Family medicine, Forensic medicine, Gastroenterology, Geriatrics, palliative medicine, Intensive care medicine, Nephrology, Neurology, Obstetrics and gynaecology, Oncology, Pediatrics, Psychiatry, Pulmonology, Rheumatology, Sports Medicine etc. Surgery: Anesthesiology, Cardiovascular Surgery, Colorectal Surgery, General Surgery, Neurosurgery, Obstetrics and gynecology, Oncologic Surgery, Ophthalmic Surgery, Ophthalmology, Orthopedic Surgery, Otolaryngology, Otorhinolaryngology(ENT), Plastic Surgery, Transplant Surgery, Vascular Surgery etc. Biomedical: Anatomy and Physiology, Biochemistry, Embryology, Epidemiology, Genetics, Histology, Immunology, Microbiology, Molecular biology, Nutrition science, Pathology, Pharmacology and Toxicology.
Professor Aamir Abdullahi Hamza
Professor Aamir Abdullahi Hamza Department of General Surgery, College of Medicine, University of Bahri, Khartoum, Sudan. Email: aamirhamzza[at]yahoo.co.uk
Prof. Babur Shakirov
Professor burn physician, Republican Scientific Center of Emergency Medicine and Samarkand State Medical Institute, Samarkand, Uzbekistan Email: baburshakirov[at]yahoo.com
Dr. Sadhu Lokanadham
Assistant Professor, Department of Anatomy Santhiram Medical College &Hospital, Nandyal-518501, Kurnool District, Andhra Pradesh, India. Email: loka.anatomy[at]gmail.com
Dr. Morshed Nasir
Professor and Head, Department of Pharmacology & Therapeutics Holy Family Rd Crescent Medical College Dhaka, Bangladesh Email: morshednasir[at]hotmail.com
Dr Sabyasachi Chatterjee
Post-Doctoral Researcher, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Louisinia State University Health Science Center (LSUHSC), Louisinia 70112, USA Email: sc.iicb13[at]gmail.com
Dr. Mohammed Mahmoud Abou Elmagd
RAK Medical University, RAK, Post Box- 11172, UAE Email: dr.elmagd[at]yahoo.com
Dr. Samara M. Abdali
College of Medicine, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq Email: Baghdad_sar[at]yahoo.com
Dr. Mohd Inayatulla Khan
Department of Physiology, Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences [RIMS], Adilabad-504001, Telangana, India Email: drkhan123[at]rediffmail.com
Prof Dr Rajendra Singh
Professor & Head, Department of Community Medicine, Government SDJH Medical College, Chandeswar, Azamgarh 276128, UP, India E-mail: drrajputbpl[at]gmail.com
Dr Namani Satyanarayana
Anatomy Unit, Faculty Of Medicine, Aimst University Semeling, Bedong 08100 Kedah, Malaysia. Email: drsatyanarayana.aimst[at]gmail.com
Roman Vereshchako, Ihor Sukhin, Oleksandr Piskorskyi, Roman Gylevych, Yehor Tereshchenko
South Asian Res J Med Sci | Pages : 14-19
DOI : 10.36346/sarjms.2020.v02i03.001
Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer mortality and is ranked first on the cancer prevalence against planet's population. The role of cervical mediastinoscopy in determining N status and morphological verification of lung cancer is considered in the article. Material and research methods: The study included 85 patients aged from 19 to 76 years (mean age was 53±13.4 years). Men and women were 47 (55.3%) and 38 (44.7%) respectively. General clinical, laboratory, endoscopic, chest radiography, morphological, immunohistochemical, and statistical methods were used. An indication for mediastinoscopy was the enlargement of the lymph nodes of the mediastinum revealed by thorax computed tomography. Results: The frequency of different combinations in the studied groups of nodes was presented as follows: 2R, 4R, 7 – 16,38%; 4R, 4L, 7 – 21.1%; 4L, 7 – 9,72%; 2R, 4R – 7,73%; 4R, 4L – 6,2%; 4R, 7 – 9,02%; 4R – 2,0%; 10L, 4L, 7 – 2,72%; 2R, 7 – 1,83%; 2R, 2L, 4R, 4L – 4,9%; 2L, 4L, 10L, 4R – 1,16%; 7 – 2,8%; 2R, 4R, 7 – 7,55%; 2R, 4R, 4L, 7 – 5,34%, 4R,10R –1,55%. At 85 patients with enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes on tomography, lung cancer was verified in 42 patients. 43 patients presented with another oncological or non-oncological pathology. In 42 patients, a study of lymph nodes of the mediastinum allowed to verify the diagnosis of lung cancer 25 patients and determine the status of N 17 patients. The sensitivity of cervical mediastinoscopy, compared with computed tomography (CT), was 97.6 CI%95 - [89.3-100.0]. According to chest CT in patients with lung cancer, an increase in mediastinal lymph nodes from 10 to 14.9 mm was observed in 47 (55.3%) people and more than 15 mm in 38 (44.7%) people. The presence of lung cancer metastases in the mediastinal nodes was detected by mediastiniscopy in 33 (78.57%) patients. In 9 (21.43%) cases, mediastinal lymphadenopathy (according to CT data) was not caused by metastasis (false positive). The histological distribution after cervical mediastinoscopy was as follows: squamous cell carcinoma - 10 (21.43%), adenocarcinoma - 24 (57.1%), small cell carcinoma - 8 (19.04%), observations respectively. The results of postoperative histological examination of the mediastinal lymph nodes coincided with the histological results of preoperative cervical mediastinoscopy in 100% of cases (100.0% CI [97.1-100.0]). Conclusions: Cervical mediastinoscopy in patients with primary lung cancer made it possible precisely determine the cause of enlargement of mediastinal lymph nodes and to set the frequency of different combinations of the studied groups of nodes was presented as follows. In patients with primary lung cancer, this method verify the diagnosis in 40.5% of cases and determine N status in 100% of cases. The sensitivity of the cervical mediastinoscopy method, compared with computed tomography, was 96.4% CI [90.8-99.3]. The results of the postoperative histological examination of the mediastinal lymph nodes coincided with the histological results of preoperative cervical mediastinoscopy in 100% of cases.
Lawal Ahmed Abdulmumini, Nosa Terry Omorodion, Henry E. Aloh, Achukwu, Peter Uwadiegwu, Gabriel Uzoma UMEH
South Asian Res J Med Sci | Pages : 11-13
DOI : 10.36346/sarjms.2020.v02i02.002
To determine the dangerous blood group ‘O’ donors o reoccurrence at the Federal Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki. One hundred (100) cell grouped and sero-typed blood group ‘0’ donors (94 males and 6 females) aged 18 and 45 years participated in this study between February and September 2007 at the Blood Bank(phlebotomy) section of the Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki after an informed consent. The presence of both the alpha (∝) and beta (β) haemolysin were determined using donors sera for reverse grouping. Haemolysin indicates the presence of haernolysis which is in the sera of the dangerous blood group ‘O’ donors. The study discovered that 36 male donors out of 100 donors studied were positive to haemolysin. This result was statistically analyzed using student’s t- test at 95% confidence interval with P value of 0.05. The numbers of haemolysin positive donors were significantly increased in comparison with the heamolysin negative donors (P< 0.05). This result pattern suggests a relatively high level of blood transfusion reactions in this part of the world. Screening test for dangerous group ‘O’ donors should be carried out routinely in blood transfusion laboratories to order to reduce the occurence of blood transfusion.
Vinayaka A M, Shivani Bhagat, Triveni M G, Gayathri G V
South Asian Res J Med Sci | Pages : 3-10
DOI : 10.36346/sarjms.2020.v02i02.001
Ankyloglossia or tongue-tie is a congenital anomaly with a short, tight, lingual frenulum leading to difficulty in pronunciation due to restricted tongue movement. In this case report, we have reported a 19-years-old, 18-years-old & 17-years-old male patients with tongue-tie & both were complained of distress in their speech articulation following which they both encountered with frenectomy operation concealed by local anesthesia without any complications. Decisively, they both were habituated by Oral Physiotherapy of tongue.
South Asian Res J Med Sci | Pages : 71-74
DOI : 10.36346/sarjms.2019.v01i03.003
Pulmonary tuberculosis is increasing at alarming rate with high level of resistance to chemotherapy. The study was done to determine the changes in haematological parameters in relation to ranges of CD4 of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis before treatment in Southeast, Nigeria. A total of one hundred subjects were recruited for the study comprising 50 subjects each for Patients with pulmonary tuberculosis before treatment with CD4 count of 100-200 cell/L and 201-300 cells/L drawn from the Health institution. The study was done in a tertiary health institution in Southeast, Nigeria. Three milliliters (3ml) of venous blood was collected from each subject and was dispensed into bottles containing di-potassium salt of ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid (K2-EDTA) at a concentration of 1.5mg/ml of blood and was used for full blood count and CD4 count. Haematological parameters were analysed using Mindray BC-5300. The results were expressed as mean± standard deviation. The data were analysed with the statistical package for social science (SPSS) version 21 using t-test, ANOVA and the level of significance was set at P<0.05. The results showed decrease in neutrophil (61.85±1.94%, 63.94±2.99%, P= 0.046) and MCV (78.09±1.64fl, 79.50±1.02fl, P=0.015) and no significant difference in WBC (5.53±0.36 X109/L, 5.32±0.58 X109/L, P=0.285), lymphocytes (23.08±2.21%,21.16±3.16%, P=0.087), monocytes (11.37±0.81%,11.49±1.06, P=0.766), eosinophils (2.28±0.61%, 2.16±0.33, P=0.574), basophils (1.42±0.26%, 1.23±0.24%, P=0.126), RBC(3.64±0.20 X1012/L, 3.63±0.18 X1012/L, P=0.839), haemoglobin (10.93±0.60g/dl, 10.89±0.55g/dl), PCV (32.80±1.80%,32.66±1.64%, P=0.840), MCH (27.47±0.49pg, 27.55±0.32pg, P=0.646), MCHC (35.14±0.45g/dl, 35.31±0.36, P=0.306), Platelet (140.81±3.28 X109/L, 141.12±4.05 X109/L, P=0.833) and ESR (47.66±2.36mm/hr, 47.46±2.98mm/hr) of the of TB patients based on ranges of CD4 counts. The study shows that the range of CD4 count has no much changes in haematological parameters except decrease in neutrophil and MCV.
South Asian Res J Med Sci | Pages : 63-70
DOI : 10.36346/sarjms.2019.v01i03.002
Purpose of the review: In recent years we have been able to see the different Killer cell immunoglobulin like receptor (KIR) mismatching model with corresponding to their receptors and their ligands. Starting from the ligand-ligand mismatch to the KIR genes tools to know more about how the mismatching works and to discover more about how their mismatching can be benefited in the Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant (HSCT) outcome. This review serves the purpose of knowing their limitation and benefit after KIR Mismatching and how every model served their purpose and how they lead to the development and discovery of new model and their role as a better and worse outcome in HSCT, and what the future opportunity holds for these KIR . In this review we will learn about KIR and HSCT, how they help in selection of donor on the basis of KIR mismatching and how they impact on HSCT outcome. Recent findings: Most of the researches and study have shifted themselves towards learning about KIR genes and how it benefits in HSCT. Summary: Current and past researches have shown beneficial role of KIR mismatching and their role in HSCT outcome.
Murna Ahmed Ali, Joseph Aje Anejo-Okopi, Stephen Oguche, Jonah Musa, Ocheme Julius Okojokwu, Patricia Manko Lar, Suleiman Mohammed Maryam, Ediga Bede Agbo
South Asian Res J Med Sci | Pages : 56-62
DOI : 10.36346/sarjms.2019.v01i03.001
The effectiveness of prophylaxis with cotrimoxazole against placental and infants’ malaria parasitaemia, anaemia and birth weight was assessed among HIV-infected pregnant women in Jos. Thick and thin blood smears of placental and cord blood were examined for malaria parasitaemia while other birth outcomes were taken at delivery. Out of the 135 HIV-infected pregnant women exposed to cotrimoxazole (CTX) Group A and 100 to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) Group B for prophylaxis, 102(75.6%) and 93(93.0%) in groups A and B respectively were followed-up to delivery. Three (2.94%) infants in group A and 1 (0.98%) in group B were preterm deliveries/stillbirths. No maternal death was recorded throughout the study. Placental malaria was 5.9% among group A and 7.5% among group B. No malaria parasites were detected in the cord blood of group A infants while 3.2% of group B infants were infected with the parasites. Mean placental malaria parasitaemia was low (<2000asp/μl) throughout the study, with 1266.6 and 0 asp/μl in the placenta and cord blood respectively of Group A and 1157.14 and 933.3 asp/μl respectively, in group B. Severe infants’ anaemia (PCV<25), was higher among study population who took SP for prophylaxis compared to those who took CTX 8(8.60%) and 6(5.90%) respectively. The means of all other birth outcomes were within normal ranges except for the placental and cord blood PCVs which were slightly lower than the normal ranges (36-47% and 42-60% respectively). Low birth weight (LBW) was observed among infants in SP group (B) than CTX group (A). Placental malaria was significantly associated with cord blood malaria, infant birth weight, and cord blood PCV. Prophylaxis with CTX effectively reduced placental and infants’ malaria parasitaemia compared to the standard SP. Continuous monitoring of haemoglobin status of HIV-infected pregnant women with low CD4+ count should be strengthened for promptly treatment of anaemic patients.
South Asian Res J Med Sci | Pages : 51-55
DOI : 10.36346/sarjms.2019.v01i02.004
India stands at the cusp of yet another public health feat. Having successfully overcome the challenges of diseases like polio, maternal and neonatal tetanus and yaws in the recent past, the country is making confident strides to triumph over measles and rubella. Viral diseases like measles and rubella even continue to flourish. MR (Measles & Rubella)-vaccine is a combination vaccine administered in a 2-dose schedule, offers protection against Measles, and Rubella. The vaccine is widely recommended by WHO and GAVI as a substitute for prevailing vaccination practices against the above mentioned diseases and viruses. Measles Rubella (MR) campaign is being launched in the country covering all children of 9 months to below 15 years of age group. The vaccine has met with positive and some little negative responses, which leads to challenges about the vaccine‘s safety and the pros and cons of the vaccine was to be evaluated carefully and ultimately time to replace the current measles primary vaccination schedule in the immunization programme first dose in 9 months, second dose in 15 to 18 months. Conclusion: Elimination of Measles and rubella in India will require a sustainable improvement in both commitment and activity of the whole country towards the WHO goals regarding MR vaccine launched into national immunization schedule.
South Asian Res J Med Sci | Pages : 45-50
DOI : 10.36346/sarjms.2019.v01i02.003
The skin aging process, which is induced by environmental factors, is named premature or extrinsic skin aging process and can be distinguished from the chronologically (intrinsic) skin aging process by characteristic skin aging signs. Although human skin acts as a biological shield against pro-oxidative chemicals and physical air pollutants, prolonged or repetitive exposure to high levels of these pollutants may have profound negative effects on the skin. Gender differences in toxicity have been reported for many substances. Children are known to be more vulnerable to the adverse health effects of air pollution. Environmental pollution by traffic is also associated with the occurrence of signs of extrinsic skin aging. Heavy metals such as cadmium, lead and mercury are common air pollutants that pose health hazards due to bioaccumulation. Ozone in the stratosphere has protective effects by filtering solar UV radiation; however, in the troposphere ozone has toxic implications for skin. Due to paucity of scientific evidence, there are no established guidelines currently available for protecting the skin against air pollution. Aside from reducing exposure, potential protection strategies should focus on repairing the skin barrier, replenishing antioxidant reserve, and reducing inflammation caused by air pollutants.
South Asian Res J Med Sci | Pages : 40-44
DOI : 10.36346/sarjms.2019.v01i02.002
According to the American Academy of Family Physicians, up to 20% of women suffer from menstrual cramping severe enough to interfere with daily activities. If prostaglandins levels are higher, more pain is often associated with the cramps. Cycle length, blood loss, period-related symptoms, fluid color, and consistency are all highly variable, even for just one person. However, severe menstrual pain is likely to be caused by a health issue such as PMS, fibroids, or endometriosis and requires medical support. When researchers analyzed frequency and duration of exercise and compared it to reports of period pain, they found exercise did little to reduce discomfort, and in fact this persisted even when a range of other factors—including weight, ethnicity, smoking and use of the birth control pill—were taken into consideration. Some women may also prefer not to use hormonal contraceptives, as they can bring unwanted side-effects such as fluctuations in weight and mood. Some methods can also slightly raise the risk of certain cancers, including breast cancer (although they reduce the risk of others, including womb cancer).
South Asian Res J Med Sci | Pages : 36-39
DOI : 10.36346/sarjms.2019.v01i02.001
Incidence of premature aging, heart diseases and many other such disorders are on a rise and a matter of great concern worldwide. The environmental factors, consuming tobacco and smoking are the main causative factors of oral cancer. The effects of these can be reversed to a limit by consumption of antioxidants. This article gives detailed description about antioxidants, its mechanism of action and its role in different disorders. This will help educate the readers about the beneficial properties of antioxidants and how it may benefit the healthy and diseased individuals.
South Asian Res J Med Sci | Pages : 30-35
DOI : 10.36346/sarjms.2019.v01i01.007
A total of 33 water samples, randomly and aseptically collected from four water sources (stream catchment, pipe borne, urban springs and main municipal reservoir) in Kumba, were assessed for bacteriological contamination. All were found positive for the presence of coliforms. 39.4% of the samples were categorized as grossly polluted, 21.2% as acceptable and 39.4% grossly polluted according to WHO standards. Specifically, the water samples were contaminated mainly with gram negative bacteria like E. coli, Shigella spp., Enterobacter spp., Streptococcus spp., and Salmonella spp., which are potential pathogens. However the bacterial loads were least in water samples graded as “Acceptable with low health risk”. The presence of Escherichia coli was an indication of recent faecal pollution.
South Asian Res J Med Sci | Pages : 24-29
DOI : 10.36346/sarjms.2019.v01i01.006
Epilepsy is one of the serious neurological conditions, and 30 to 40% of people with epilepsy have seizures that are not controlled by primary medication. It is estimated that 10–20 % children with epilepsy, usually have negative effect on the education, social life. Absence of response to 2 anti-epileptic drugs tolerated at reasonable doses is considered refractory for all working purpose. Advances in imaging and electrophysiology have revolutionized the management of children with refractory epilepsy. Several newer antiepileptic drugs with novel mechanism of action and Ketogenic diet along with advanced epileptic surgery and nerve stimulation has changed the lives of the patients along with better outcome.
South Asian Res J Med Sci | Pages : 20-23
DOI : 10.36346/sarjms.2019.v01i01.005
Bodo tribe, the largest plains tribes of Assam, northeastern part of India possesses an immense knowledge and belief on their folklore medicinal practices. They inhibit their art of healing from their forefather, and it is being passed on since ages. Multiple herbs are utilize in combination for a specific desired effect. One such popular compound comprising of 6 herbs is very well known among the community for its haemostatic and quick wound healing effect. The compound consist of Jatrasi (Justicia gendarussa), Dubri hagra (Cynodon dactylon), Two varieties of Manimuni (Centella asiatica and Hydrocotyle rotundifolia), Jarmuni (Chromolaena Odorata), Thulungshi/Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum). A clear identification and detail analysis each individual herbs would aid in better understanding of the combined haemostatic and wound healing effect.
South Asian Res J Med Sci | Pages : 15-19
DOI : 10.36346/sarjms.2019.v01i01.004
Apoptosis is a programmed cell death when the cell intentionally decides to die. It occurs due to the biochemical instruction from the DNA of cells. It is different from necrosis wherein a cell dies due to outside insult or deprivation. It is a complex process and is triggered by the signal molecules that tell the cell it’s time, to commit cellular suicide. It is an important evolutionary adaptation to destroy its cells when they are no more useful to the organism. The apoptosis is a Greek word which means “falling off” as leaves do in autumn. Apoptosis is characterized by cell shrinkage, blabbing of plasma membrane maintenance of organelle integrity, condensation, and fragmentation of DNA, followed by removal of the apoptotic cell by phagocytosis. The South-African born biologist Sydney Brenner, American biologist H. Robert Horvitz and British biologist John E. Sulston shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 2002 for their work on apoptosis.
South Asian Res J Med Sci | Pages : 8-14
DOI : 10.36346/sarjms.2019.v01i01.003
The primary aim and objective of Ayurveda is to maintain the health of healthy person and to eradicate the diseases of a diseased person is the secondary one. One whose dosa, agni, dhatu and malas are in balanced state and whose senses, mind and soul are functioning properly is a healthy individual. Agni maintains the physiology of this deha desha. In other words agni controls the state of biological equilibrium of dosha, dhatu and mala. The derangement of agni produces various diseases and it is the root cause of all diseases. In Ayurveda the term agni is used in the sense of digestion of food and metabolic products.Agni converts food in the form of energy, which is responsible for all the vital functions of our body. So it is necessary to know all the reference found in brihatrayee.
South Asian Res J Med Sci | Pages : 6-7
DOI : 10.36346/sarjms.2019.v01i01.002
Ayushman Bharat is a recently unveiled India’s health protection scheme that aims to provide health benefits to 50 crore poor people. The article briefly discusses the schemes success and provides few directions to improve the existing scheme.
Ercan Öğreden, Erhan Demirelli, Mehmet Karadayı, Murat Usta, Ural Oğuz
South Asian Res J Med Sci | Pages : 1-5
DOI : 10.36346/sarjms.2019.v01i01.001
Background/aim: The purpose of the present study was to review the effect of varicocelectomy on semen parameters and spontaneous pregnancy in infertile men. Materials and methods: Data regarding 227 patients who underwent varicocelectomy were analyzed. Patients that was used a loop magnifier were labeled as group I(n=90), patients whom was used a microscope were labeled as group II(n=90) and patients who underwent open ligation were labeled as group III(n=47). Semen parameters and spontaneous pregnancy were compared between the groups. Results: The average age was 28.5 years. Preoperative azoospermia, oligospermia and normospermia were 13.3%, 52.2% and 34.4% in group I, 22.2%, 36.7% and 41.1% in group II, 6.4%, 48.9% and 44.7% in group III, respectively. Postoperative azoospermia, oligospermia and normospermia were 1.1%, 46.7% and 52.2% in group II, respectively(p<0.05). Postoperatively, oligospermia and normospermia were 50% and 50% in group I, 42.6% and 57.4% in group III, respectivly(p<0.05). Postoperative azoospermia were not observed in any of the patients in group I and grup III. Preoperative concentration was 12X106/mL in group I, 12,9X106/mL in group II, and 13X106/mL in group III, postoperative concentration were 16,5X106/mL, 27,5X106/mL and 23X106/mL in group I, group II and group III, respectively(p>0.05). Preoperative morphology were 26.7% in group I, 33% in group II and 25.5% in group III, postoperative morphology were 58.9%, 75.6% and 76.6% in group I, group II and group III, respectively(p<0.05). Preoperative sperm A was 19.9% in group I, 8.3% in group II, 21.3% in group III, postoperative sperm A was 32%, 21.1% and 33.7% in all groups, respectively(p<0.05). Preoperative sperm A+B was 42.1% in group I, 14.2% in group II, 45.1% in group III, postoperative sperm A+B was 52.3%, 45.2% and 55.9% in all groups, respectively(p<0.05). Spontaneous pregnancy was 37.8% in group I, 26.7% in group II and 38.3% in group III(p>0.05). Conclusions: Improvement in semen parameters were found significant in microsurgery groups. While the concentration was insignificant in the open ligation group, spontaneous pregnancy was similar in groups.
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