South Asian Research Journal of Agriculture and Fisheries (SARJAF)
South Asian Res J Agri Fish
Dr. Sunil Kumar
Country of Origin:
“South Asian Research Journal of Agriculture and Fisheries” ISSN 2664-4010 (Print) & ISSN 2664-6730 (Online) is peer reviewed, open access Academic and Research Journal Published by SAR Publication, Bangladesh.
This Journal publishes Research Articles, Review Articles, Case Studies and other scientific studies within all the fields of Agriculture and Fisheries.
This Journal is aimed to publish Research Articles, Review Articles, Case Studies and other scientific studies within all the fields of Agriculture and Fisheries.
Scope of Journal
This Journal publishes Articles in all disciplines under Agriculture and Fisheries like -
Plant Breeding and Genetics, Plant Pathology, Horticulture, Soil Science, Entomology, Production techniques, Agricultural Engineering, Agricultural Genomics, Agronomy, Crop Science, Ecology & Environment, Forestry, Seed Science Research, Soil & Fertilization, Waste management, limnology, oceanography, freshwater biology, marine biology, conservation, ecology, population dynamics, economics and management etc.
Dr. Sunil Kumar
Prof. & Head, Department of Floriculture & Landscape Architecture, College of Horticulture & Forestry, Central Agricultural University Pasighat-791 102, East Siang District, Arunachal Pradesh, India Email: sunu159[at]gmail.com
Asst. Professor Dept. of Agribusiness & Marketing, Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University, Dhaka-1207, Bangladesh Email: fazlulhoque1991[at]gmail.com
Dr. K. John
Principal Scientist, Dept: Genetics & Plant Breeding, Regional Agricultural Research Station, Email: johnlekhana[at]rediffmail.com
Md. Hafizur Rahman Bhuiyan
Lecturer, Dept. of Food Engineering and Technology, State University of Bangladesh, Bangladesh Email: mhrbhuiyan[at] bau.edu.bd
Mohammed Abu El-Mgad
Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kafrelsheikh University, Kafr Elsheikh, Egypt Email: mohamed.abouelmagd[at]vet.kfs.edu.eg
Dr. S. Ezil Vendan
Scientist, & AcSIR Faculty, Food Protectants & Infestation Control Department, CSIR - Central Food Technological Research Institute, Mysore - 570 020, Karnataka, India. Email: ezilvendan[at]cftri.res.in
Dr. Bellamkonda Ramesh
Department of Food Technology, Vikrama Simhapuri University, Nellore, Andhra Pradesh, India Email: rammygp[at]gmail.com
Dr. Bholanath Mondal
Assistant Professor, Department of Plant Protection, Palli-Siksha Bhavana (Institute of Agriculture), Visva-Bharati, Sriniketan - 731 236, Bolpur, Bhirbhum, West Bengal, India Email: bholanath.ppvb[at]gmail.com
Dr. Ashutosh Kumar Mall
ICAR-Indian Institute of Sugarcane Research, Lucknow-226 002, Uttar Pradesh India Email: ashutoshkumarmall[at]gmail.com
Scientist (Plant Breeding and Genetics), Agriculture Botany Division, Khumaltar, Lalitpur under Nepal Agricultural Research Council (NARC), Singh Durbar Plaza, Kathmandu, Nepal Email: jibshrestha[at]gmail.com
South Asian Res J Agri Fish | Pages : 1-14
DOI : 10.36346/sarjaf.2020.v02i01.001
This study evaluated the influence of combined application of cattle dung and NPK fertilizer (NPK 15 -15 -15) on soil physicochemical properties, growth, nutrient uptake and yield of fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis) during the dry season of 2015. The pot experiment was conducted at Faculty of Agriculture Complex, Kogi State University, Anyigba in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with seven treatments and four replicates. The treatments were 250 kg/ha NPK fertilizer, 2 t/ha cow dung, 2 t/ha cow dung + 250 kg/ha NPK fertilizer, 3 t/ha cow dung + 300 kg NPK fertilizer, 4 t/ha cow dung + 350 kg NPK fertilizer, 5 t/ha cow dung + 400 kg NPK fertilizer and a control. The following growth and yield parameters were measured; average number of leaves, branches, stem girth and internode length. Results from this study showed that combined application of cow dung and NPK fertilizer significantly (P < 0.05) increased organic carbon, available P, soil pH, total nitrogen, exchangeable bases and Effective Cation Exchange Capacity compared to the control. The amendments did not significantly influence soil physical properties. Uptake of N, P, K, Ca and Mg were higher with treatments in which cow dung was combined with NPK fertilizer compared to the control. It was observed that all growth parameters increased with increased levels of nutrient application. The growth parameters were high in pots treated with high rate combinations of organic and inorganic fertilizer and significantly different from either sole organic or inorganic nutrient sources or control. The results suggest that, application of 5 t/ha cow dung + 400 kg/ha NPK fertilizer is recommended for fluted pumpkin production in Anyigba, but in terms of economic and environmental considerations, the application of 5 t/ha of cow dung+250 kg/ha NPK is recommended.
Nnaji J.O., Abdulshakur M.M., A. Al-Mustapha., A. Haruna., Fatima Z.I., and Eze P.U.
South Asian Res J Agri Fish | Pages : 143-147
DOI : 10.36346/sarjaf.2019.v01i04.003
This study was conducted to determine socio-economic characteristic and identify constraints of palm oil marketers in Nkanu East Local Government Area of Enugu State, Nigeria. Both Secondary and Primary Data were used for data collection. Percentage and frequency distribution were used to determine the socio-economic characteristic of palm oil marketers and the identification of the constraints facing the level of palm oil marketers, the result showed that 60.83% of the respondents were females, while 37.17% were males. The Age bracket of 31 – 40 constituted the majority (37.50%) of palm oil marketers in the study area. The result also indicates that married people were more involved in the palm oil marketing which accounted for 51.7% in the study area. 40.00% of the respondents had primary education, while the least 13.33% had tertiary education. The major sources of income of the respondents were trading which accounted for 37.50%; this shows that palm oil business is a profitable enterprise and it worth investing. It was observed that palm oil marketer’s years of experience of respondents were within the bracket of 5 – 9 years which accounted for 35.00%, while the least 15% and above were 11.67%. The major constraints of palm oil marketers in the study area were: lack of capital incentives (29.17%), the use of unimproved varieties (20.83%), lack of essential infrastructure (19.17%), high purchase price of fruits (12.50%), Charges on taxes (10.00%), Seasonal of product (8.33%). The study recommends that capital should be made available to the palm oil marketers for them to sell and transport their palm oil to the urban areas where they will make more income as a trader. Extension agent should provide informal education on marketing strategies and marketing structure which will improve their palm oil business in Nkanu East L.G.A of Enugu State, Nigeria.
Mairiga, J, Momodu, H, Orji, P. O, Halima, M, Roseline, P. O
South Asian Res J Agri Fish | Pages : 137-142
DOI : 10.36346/sarjaf.2019.v01i04.002
This paper reviewed the communication strategy of Kebbi State Agricultural Development Agency to see how effective it has been in terms of enhancing women’s participation in sustainable agricultural development. Descriptive statistics was deployed using both questionnaire and In-depth Interview (IDI) where 372 copies of questionnaire were retrieved and analysed from women farmers in Kebbi state. The paper used to achieve this, literatures on the concept of sustainable agriculture, women’s participation in sustainable agricultural development, communication strategies, and barriers to women’s participation in sustainable agriculture were reviewed. Findings revealed that both local and conventional strategy were deployed and yielded result in enhancing women’s participation as well as send vital message to message. The paper recommended that based on the acceptance of both local and conventional strategies, more efforts by Agricultural agencies and government should be focus on them to further endear women to agriculture in the state and Nigeria at large.
South Asian Res J Agri Fish | Pages : 132-136
DOI : 10.36346/sarjaf.2019.v01i04.001
Amino acid composition of the body parts of Macrobrachium vollenhovenii and Callinectes amnicola collected from Badagry creek were assessed and determined. Fifteen and twelve samples of M. vollenhovenii and C. amnicola respectively were used in the study. The weight of the prawns ranged from 4.09g- 17.50g while the crab ranged from 31.00g-119.82g. The prawns were separated into three (3) different parts which are the whole prawn, flesh and exoskeleton while the crabs were limited to the whole crab and the flesh. Chemical analysis was carried out following the modified method AOAC method 982.30, while the data obtained were analyzed using SPSS version 20.0. Eighteen amino acids were reported made up of ten (10) essential amino acids (EAA) and eight non-essential amino acids (NEAA). The EAA were arginine, histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan and valine, while the NEAA were glycine, alanine, proline, aspartate, glutamate, tyrosine and cystine. The ratio of EAA: NEAA in M. vollenhovenii and C. amnicola was 1.25. There were significant differences (p=0.05) among the amino acids from the various parts analysed. Glutamate recorded the highest concentration while cystine recorded the lowest concentration in both crustaceans. Thus, these crustaceans probably play important roles in learning and sensitivity due to the concentration of glutamate which is a powerful excitatory neurotransmitter that is released by nerve cells in the brain. On the basis of nutrition and higher concentration of amino acids, M. vollenhoveni and C. amnicola are better sources of protein and can serves as substitutes for other proteinous food.
South Asian Res J Agri Fish | Pages : 123-131
DOI : DOI: 10.36346/SARJAF.2019.v01i03.009
Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is one of the most widely grown cereals in the world and is the staple food for much of its population. Senegal, a major consumer of rice, uses the international market to cover its needs. Improving the productivity and organoleptic characteristics of grains is one of its research areas to secure this food. In this context a screening of 120 new rice lines from varietal selection with anther culture in VFS was undertaken on the basis of seven (7) characters. This study is carried out in the experimental station of ISRA Saint-Louis, in the commune of Fanaye. Its objective is to evaluate the variability existing between 4 control varieties. The design used is an "augmented design". The results obtained show that, apart from the yield, the six (6) other parameters have significantly significant differences between the controls. The comparison of them and the controls shows very interesting agronomic performances of some of them. Frequency analysis revealed that 44.16% of the lines were extra vigorous, 15% had a greater height at maturity than those that were popularized and 12.50% had a smaller height. The combination of all these variables permitted leaving of the collection 40 best varieties to be advanced in a preliminary participatory yield trial.
South Asian Res J Agri Fish | Pages : 118-122
DOI : 10.36346/sarjaf.2019.v01i03.008
Background: Leptospirosis is one of the most important contagious zoonosis diseases caused by different serovars of Leptospira interrogans. Objectives: The aim of the present study is to determine the prevalence rate of Leptospira pathogen serovars in cows and relation to human population in Gilan province during 2003-2013. Methods: Totally 1250 serum samples were collected from different cities in Gilan (800 samples at 2003 and 450 samples at 2013 from cows). The serum samples were analyzed employing the Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT) at the Razi Research Institute Center. Results: The infection rate was high, in 3-4 years old cows and in spring seasons. In 2013, serum samples showed a positive reaction against leptospira which was higher compared to 2003. The most seroprevalent serovar was Grippotyphosa and the least was serovar Canicola in 2003 and predominant seroprevalent was Icterohaemprragia and the least was Pomona in 2013. The most percentage rates of MAT titers were 1:200 in 2003, and most percentage rates of MAT titers were 1:800 and1:1600 in 2013. The infection rate was high and according to the review of Leptospirosis prevalence in cows and its relation to the human population between 2003 and 2013. The relationship between human infection and an increase in animal titer with the highest rate of infection seen in the countryside. Conclusions: There is an important concern about the possibility of the occurrence of an acute form of the disease with low prevalence. There is, therefore, a need to control the disease in Gilan Province.
South Asian Res J Agri Fish | Pages : 99-105
DOI : 10.36346/sarjaf.2019.v01i03.005
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of CL, ovary weight and ovary size, on follicular population, oocytes recovery, oocytes grades, oocytes index and cleavage rate on Indian buffalos. A total of 296 buffalo ovaries were collected from slaughterhouse and transported to laboratory for determination of ovaries weight, length, width, thickness, follicular population and oocytes grades, oocytes index and cleavage rate. The results obtained revealed that the number of small and large follicles were significantly higher in ovaries having weight more than 5g as compared to ovaries weight between 3-5g and less than 3g. The number of small follicles in large size ovaries was significantly higher as compared to small size ovaries. The mean number of oocytes recovery, number of oocytes for IVEP and number of cleavage, obtained from ovaries with CL was lower than that of ovaries without CL. No significant difference observed between presence and absence of CL, follicular population and oocytes grades.
M. K. Ghosal, Sushree Titikshya, G. Manasi Mohapatra
South Asian Res J Agri Fish | Pages : 86-90
DOI : 10.36346/sarjaf.2019.v01i03.003
Leafy vegetables (greens) are highly perishable and need immediate storage in a favourable environment after harvest for maintaining their freshness and marketability. Their importance is now-a-days gaining momentum among the consumers because of various health benefits. However, farmers are not interested to grow leafy vegetables due to their high perishability and lack of proper storage facilities which force them to sell their harvested material immediately at a lower price, resulting ultimately in reduced net profit to the growers. An attempt has therefore been made in this paper to study the feasibility of using a low cost and very low energy consuming storage device for short-term storage of leafy vegetable (spinach) of about 1 week and to encourage the farmers to go for cultivating greens in a small scale mostly in their back yard for achieving nutritional and livelihood security. One such storage device used for the present study is zero energy cool chamber, constructed at OUAT, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India. The Zero energy cool chamber for this study was provided with a gravity fed micro-dripper watering system for uniform and continuous wetting of sand bed. A zero energy cool chamber constructed in coastal area of Odisha i.e. at Bhubaneswar was used to study the storability of most prevailing leafy vegetable i.e. spinach during April-May 2015. It was found that spinach could be stored 4 days in the marketable form in zero energy cool chamber under coastal conditions compared to 1 day in room condition (temperature, 23-27 0C and Rh, 50-60 %) during summer period.
South Asian Res J Agri Fish | Pages : 112-117
DOI : 10.36346/sarjaf.2019.v01i03.007
The study aim at assessing rural farmer’s household’s livelihood security options amidst conflicts in Taraba state, Nigeria. Specifically, the study was to identify Farmers’ Alternative Livelihood activities and analyse the determinants of livelihood diversification strategies among rural households. Multi-stage sampling procedure was adopted in the process of sample selection. Primary data were collected using well structure questionnaire administered to 84 respondents, out of which 82 questionnaires were properly filled and returned. Descriptive statistical tools such as frequency, percentage and ranking and inferential statistics such as Logit regression were used to achieve objectives of the study. The result revealed that the major choice of alternative livelihood activities for most of the rural farmers in the Taraba State in the midst of conflicts (famers-herders and inter-tribal conflicts) were petty trading (81.7%), casual daily labour (62.2%), food vending (54.9%) and Selling of firewood/Charcoal production (52.4%). Determinants of household livelihood alternative activities amidst conflict were level of formal education ((p<0.01), insecurity (p<0.01), farm size (p<0.01), reduced farm income (p<0.05), extension contact (p<0.01) and dependency households (p<0.01). it was concluded that was that farmers in conflicts affected area use diversify their income sources into non-farm activities to conserve livelihood security in the midst of conflicts. The study recommended Governmental and nongovernmental organizations should give attention for rural livelihood improvement through providing security in the conflicts areas.
South Asian Res J Agri Fish | Pages : 106-111
DOI : 10.36346/sarjaf.2019.v01i03.006
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of Farmers-Herders conflict on the farming households of in southern Taraba State, Nigeria. The objective were to: describe the socioeconomic characteristics of crop farmers in southern Taraba State; ascertain the causes of conflict between farmers and herdsmen as perceived by crop farmers and ascertain the effects of the conflict on livelihood of farming households in southern Taraba State. Data were collected from 102 farming households using structured questionnaire, as respondents for the study. Multi-stage sampling was used for the study. Descriptive statistics was used to analyze the data collected. The results of the study shows that 61.8% of farmers were males, Majority (81.4%) of the farmers fell within 21-50 years with mean age of 41 years, majority (55.9%) were married with average household size of 11 persons. Majority of the farmers are predominantly small-scale farmers with average farm size of 2.82 ha, about 88.2% of the rural farmers had formal education. The major crops grown were cereals crops (47.1%), 73.5% of the respondents belonged to organizations with average annual income of farmers was N181, 050.52. The major perceived causes of conflicts by crop farmers in the study area was uncontrolled grazing and damage to crops by cattle (95.1%). The most severe consequences of conflicts were decrease in output and income of farmers (99.0%) and Loss of lives and injuries sustained (98.0%). It was concluded that Farmers-herders conflicts are destructive and have far reaching consequences on livelihoods farming household as well as rural development in Taraba State and Nigeria at large if left unchecked quickly. It was recommended that intensive system of grazing, through ranching should be introduced so that cattle’s are restricted to a particular place and chances of future clashes foreclosed.
South Asian Res J Agri Fish | Pages : 91-98
DOI : 10.36346/sarjaf.2019.v01i03.004
The study analyzed the economics of catfish production in Delta State Nigeria. The multi-stage random sampling technique was used in selecting 700 catfish farmers from the study area using the proportionate sampling method. Primary data were collected through the use of questionnaires and group discussions. Data were analyzed using budgeting techniques and the stochastic frontier production function. The result of socio-economic characteristics of the respondents indicate that majority of the farmers were within the age range of 20-39 years; male; had formal education and married with a household size of 1-5 persons. Catfish production was found to be a profitable business in the study area with a net farm income of N402; 654 and rate of return on investment of N1.48 and a gross ratio of N1.67 for every naira spent on production. The mean technical efficiency was 57%. Findings further revealed that none of the sampled catfish farmers reached the frontier threshold. However; variables included in the model for the efficiency effects were stocking density; Labour; feeds; drugs and fingerlings. The parameters of the stochastic frontier production function were estimated simultaneously with those of the inefficiency effects. It is therefore recommended that extension workers should intensify organization of training; workshops and seminars for catfish farmers on improved methods and technology; cost of farm implements and feeds should be subsidized to ease the risk of catfish farming and young unemployed youths should be encouraged to participate in the catfish business so as to generate employment and income towards sustainable rural development.
Nouri Kushlaf, Ahlam Rashed, Khalifa.S.Mohamed, A.M.EL-mahmoudy, Nadia Almunir, Manal M Elshili, Seham T M Oshkondali
South Asian Res J Agri Fish | Pages : 73-77
DOI : 10.36346/sarjaf.2019.v01i03.001
This study was conducted at a private farm in Zawia Libya during the winter of 2015/2016 to study the effect of organic fertilizer (decomposed sheep residues) and complete chemical fertilizers (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium) on vegetative growth and yield of green onion class (Texas SR502), which cultured in sandy soil. The results showed that the significant effect of the type and concentration of the fertilizer which has been used, so the organic fertilizer of the decomposed sheep remnants by 20 tons / ha concentration revealed significant effect on studied characteristics, while there is no significant effect by using 10 tons/ha of organic fertilizer in comparison with the control except it is effect on the diameter of the bulb. Also, the results showed that there were no significant differences between the three fertilizer treatments on the percentage of total soluble solids contents of the crop. However, there were a significant difference between them and the control.
South Asian Res J Agri Fish | Pages : 78-85
DOI : 10.36346/sarjaf.2019.v01i03.002
The study analyzed the economics of Moringa oleifera value chain in selected Local Government Areas (LGAs) of Northern Taraba state, namely: Ardo-kola, Karim-lamido, Yorro and Zing. The broad objective was to analyse Moringa oleifera value chain with a view to understand the contributions of the value chain to the participants‟ livelihood, namely: processors, marketers and consumers. The specific objectives were to determine the influence of the socio-economic characteristics on the efficiency of the market; analyse the structure, conduct and performance of the Moringa oleifera value chain. Data for the study was obtained from 284 respondents purposely selected consisting of 44 processors, 120 marketers and 120 consumers. Herfindahl-Hirschman Index (HHI), and linear regression were used to analyse the data. Result revealed that Linear regression showed that age was significant at 10%, formal education was significant at 1%, marital status was significant at 5% and gender was significant at 10%. The HHI revealed that there was high competition and low concentration across all the markets; in Karim-lamido LGA, only the oil industry had HHI of 1804, implying a highly concentrated market with low competition. In Yorro LGA, all the markets had low concentration and high competition as revealed by the HHI fresh leaves (13.98), dry leaves (13.21), seeds (29.74) and oil (43.07). Zing LGA had HHI of fresh leaves (91.99), dry leaves (3856.78), seed (180.13) and oil (221.56). All the industries, as evident from the result, had low market concentration, except for the dry leaf industry, with HHI value of 3856.78. Processors‟ marketing efficiency value was 292.2%, which indicated a highly efficient market, while the marketers had marketing efficiency value of 96.59%. It was recommended that participants should form cooperatives, so that resources can be pooled together to obtain modern facilities to improve product processing. Also, the state Ministry of Agriculture should establish Moringa oleifera seed multiplication units and Moringa oleifera plantation.
South Asian Res J Agri Fish | Pages : 65-72
DOI : 10.36346/sarjaf.2019.v01i02.005
This study on farmer’s perception and determinants of insecurity management of the farm enterprise was carried out in Bauchi State, Nigeria. It among others identified farmers’ perceived insecurities in the farm enterprise, adopted measures for mitigation of their effects and determined factors that influence farmer’s management strategy towards insecurities. Three hundred and ten (310) farmers were selected using both the random sampling and snow balling sampling techniques for both crop farmers and the nomadic pastoralists where data was collected from them using well structured questionnaire complimented with personal interview methods. The data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics such as table, frequency, percentages, chi-square and binary probit model. The results obtained from the analysis showed that herders/farmers clashes, drought, fire outbreak, diseases, inadequate technologies, ill health, policy inconsistency, pricing/hedge out, kidnapping, pests, cultural/social taboos, theft/roastling and soil erosion as insecurities experienced by the farmers. The most perceived insecurity was herders/farmers clashes and the least perceived was soil erosion. The socio-economic determinants of the farmers that significantly influenced their management strategies to farm enterprise insecurity include: education (p<0.01), farming experience (p<0.01), farm size (p<0.05), household size (p<0.05), distance (p<.0.01), household income (p<0.10) and perception level (p<0.05). Based on these findings, the study recommended that farmers should be encourage to take up formal insurance policy against losses, ranching should be encouraged with the formation of local vigilante, and socio-economic capacity building of farmers in effective management of security challenges towards sustainable agricultural development and food security.
South Asian Res J Agri Fish | Pages : 54-64
DOI : 10.36346/sarjaf.2019.v01i02.004
Genetic variability and inter-character association in 25 accessions of cowpea were studied through their expression of qualitative morphological traits. Accessions were collected from the Genetic Resources Centre of the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Ibadan and assessed in the field in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three (3) replications. Twelve (12) qualitative traits were evaluated utilizing 10 plants for each accession per replication. Heritability and Genotypic correlations were estimated with Plant Breeding Tools (PB-Tools) version 1.4. The information were exposed to cluster and Principal Component (PC) analyses utilizing Palaeontological Statistics Software Package for Education and Data Analysis (PAST). All the 12 qualitative traits separated accessions successfully. Heritability for all traits was 100 percent, which showed that in cowpea, the effect of environment on manifestation of qualitative traits is insignificant. The most variable trait was immature pigmentation (84.24%) and the trait with the least variability was leaf colour (20.92%). In the bi-plots, accessions in group I and II which differed to accessions in group IV in important traits such as growth pattern, plant hairiness, pod attachment to peduncle and leaf colour are recommended together with these important traits in cowpea improvement programmes. Conclusively, combination of PCA, bi-plot, cluster analysis and genotypic correlations were efficient in revealing significant relationships among characteristics of cowpea accessions for selection purposes, and are therefore recommended.
South Asian Res J Agri Fish | Pages : 50-53
DOI : 10.36346/sarjaf.2019.v01i02.003
Southeast Asia is a region that produces high amounts of key food commodities and includes areas of divergent socio-economic status. Food security is a high-priority issue for sustainable global development both quantitatively and qualitatively. In recent decades, adverse effects of unexpected contaminants on crop quality have threatened both food security and human health. Public concern about the adverse environmental and human health impacts of organochlorine contaminants led to strict regulations on their use in developed nations two decades ago. Nevertheless, DDT and several other organochlorine insecticides are still being used for agriculture and public health programs in developing countries in Asia and the South Pacific. As a consequence, humans in this region are exposed to greater dietary levels of organochlorines. Heavy metals and metalloids (e.g., Hg, As, Pb, Cd, and Cr) can jeopardize human metabolomics, contributing to morbidity and even mortality. Those during crop production include soil nutrient depletion, water depletion, soil and water contamination, and pest resistance/outbreaks and the emergence of new pests and diseases.
South Asian Res J Agri Fish | Pages : 44-49
DOI : 10.36346/sarjaf.2019.v01i02.002
This study analyzed the economics of cow milk production in Yola South Local Government Area of Adamawa State, Nigeria. Despite the importance of pastoral milk in the provision of nutritional requirement of Nigerians, the supply from the local production to meet up with the demand is still low. The specific objectives of the study were, to describe the socioeconomic characteristics of the respondents, determine the profitability of the respondents and determine the factors influencing milk production. Questionnaire was used for data collection. The analytical techniques used for the study were the descriptive statistics, net farm income and inferential statistics. The results revealed that about 87% of the respondents were married and most (34%) of the respondents were in their active age. Profitability analysis showed a net farm income of N 40,125 with an average rate of return of 0.46k per every naira spent from an average of 28 lactating cows. This implies that the business is a profitable venture. The regression analysis result shows that R2 value is 0.74, this implies that 74% of variation in the output of milk was explained by independent variables in the model. The regression model is statistically significant at F-statistic of 76.6 and prob. (F= 0.0000).The variables X2, X3 and X6 were statistically significant at 1% while X1 is statistically significant at 5%. The study recommends that the use of improved milk technology should be encouraged among small scale milk producers.
South Asian Res J Agri Fish | Pages : 38-43
DOI : 10.36346/sarjaf.2019.v01i02.001
They study analyzed the profitability of groundnut production in Ardo-kola Local Government Area of Taraba State, Nigeria. Despite the fact that Nigeria has been one of the leading producer of groundnut in the world, the demand for the product to meet up nutritional requirement in the country is still high. The specific objectives of the study were to describe the socio-economic characteristics of groundnut farmers, determine the factors influencing groundnut production, estimate profitability of groundnut production and identify the constraints in groundnut production in the study area. Primary data were collected from 150 groundnut farmers using multi-stage and purposive sampling techniques. The data were analyzed using frequency and mean, farm budgeting techniques and regression analysis. The results revealed that majority (67%) of the respondents were male. About 48% of the respondents were youths of 31-40 years old, majority (60%) of the respondents were married while 93% of the respondents had formal education. The gross margin analysis shows that groundnut farmers incurred a total variable cost of ₦102, 000, fixed cost of ₦33, 000 and a total revenue of ₦ 220,000. The regression result indicated that 3 variables regressed were statistically significant. The variable X1 and X4 were statistically significant at 1% level of significance while X2 was statically significant at 5% level of significance. The result further revealed that the business of groundnut farming is a profitable venture. Based on the finding, it is recommended that farmers should organized themselves into groups for easy access to formal sources of credit to provide needed farm implement and quality seed.
South Asian Res J Agri Fish | Pages : 29-37
DOI : 10.36346/sarjaf.2019.v01i01.006
Once again the latest uproar over the toxic concentrations of pollution in the Country‘s National Capital Region has brought to light the inability of India‘s Legislative and Legal processes to regulate the increasing air pollution. Despite the early Legislative Recognitions of Air Pollution problem and the parallel establishment of regulatory processes, India is unable to limit the sharp upward trajectory of air pollution. While several problems regarding the country‘s legal and regulatory system governing air quality deserves severe and urgent consideration, this article focuses in specific on one problem i.e. the liability system for infringement of air quality norms. This article is broken down into three streams. The first segment describes the appropriate law provisions relating to liability for causing air pollution either Civil or Criminal. The Second aspect discusses three critical problems emerging under the present responsive system: (1) The pollution control boards have no authority to impose penalties; (2) The prosecution of criminal offenses is not an effective solution; and (3) There is no full relief provided by the National Green Tribunal Act. The article‘s third and final portion suggests a way forward. It is suggested that extra enforcement powers should be given to the Pollution Control Boards, and administrative penalties should be implemented for violations, albeit under certain circumstances.
South Asian Res J Agri Fish | Pages : 23-28
DOI : 10.36346/sarjaf.2019.v01i01.005
This study was carried out in other to determine the consumers’ perception and willingness to pay for organic vegetables in Ardo Kola Local Government Area of Taraba State. Vegetable production plays an important role in food security and provides food and raw materials for industries, income from sales, unemployment for small household in urban and peri-urban areas in Nigeria. Data collected for this research were analyzed using descriptive statistics and logistic regression model. The empirical findings indicates that majority of the respondents were mainly male, married with mean household of six and mean age of about 41years. Most (37.1%) of them had completed either primary or secondary education. Many of the respondents agreed with the healthier, better quality, tastier and more expensive characteristics of organic vegetables. About 85% of them were willing to pay for organically grown vegetables. This shows that in the event of extensive cultivation there is a demand for organically grown vegetables in the study area. However, factors affecting consumer WTP for organically grown vegetables were Age (3.804) number of workers (4.003), and educational level (0.175). These three factors were statistically significant at 5% and 1% level of significance respectively. This implies that age, number of workers and educational level of were important factors that significantly influence organic vegetable production in the study area. The study wish to recommend that farmers should be educated on the importance of organic vegetable farming.
Paul Omaye Joseph, Ojomah Frank Ojochegbe, Amhakhian Sunday Okonfor, Ukaha Chinwe Faith
South Asian Res J Agri Fish | Pages : 17-22
DOI : 10.36346/sarjaf.2019.v01i01.004
The continuous use of land for agricultural production could lead to land degradation, nutrients depletion, declined crop production and environmental degeneration. This study was therefore conducted to investigate the impacts of land use on physicochemical properties of soils of oil palm plantation, cultivated land and fallow land. Twenty-one (21) soil samples were collected from each land use type at a depth of 0 - 20 cm, giving a total of sixty-three (63) samples, and bulk together to make three composite samples; one for each land use type, and analyzed for selected physical and chemical properties using standard methods. The results of the study, on one hand, revealed that organic matter, total nitrogen, available phosphorus, exchangeable calcium, magnesium, potassium, CEC, PBS, organic carbon, exchangeable acidity and pH contents of the cultivated land were significantly (P<0.05) lower than the adjacent fallow land. On the other hand, the result revealed that exchangeable calcium, magnesium, potassium, CEC, PBS and exchangeable acidity contents of the oil palm plantation were significantly (P<0.05) lower than the adjacent fallow land. However, there was no significant difference between the fallow land and oil palm plantation in available phosphorus, exchangeable sodium, organic carbon, total nitrogen and organic matter. Available phosphorus and ECEC were high for all the land use types. The pH in all the land use types was moderately acidic. From the present study, it could be concluded that the soil quality and health were maintained relatively under the fallow land, whereas the influence on most parameters were negative on the soils of the cultivated land. The continuous cultivation of the land has degraded the soil properties and there is therefore the need to adopt appropriate management practices to achieve high soil quality and sustainable productivity.
South Asian Res J Agri Fish | Pages : 12-16
DOI : 10.36346/sarjaf.2019.v01i01.003
The study assessed the farm labour constraints in Esan west local government area of Edo state, Nigeria. Specifically, it identified the types of farm labour used for some farming activities and also ascertained the constraints faced by farmers in using farm labour. Survey method was used to sample 108 respondents from four (4) purposively selected villages in the study area. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistical tools. The result revealed that Most of the respondents used family and hired labour in carrying out most of their farming activities. The major constraints of the farmers in the study area were high cost of labour (mean = 2.84) and lack of finance (mean = 2.83). The result also revealed that there was a significant difference among the constraints faced by the respondents with high cost of labour (mean rank = 3.456) being the most significant serious constraint. It was recommended that the farmers organise themselves into associations to assist each other rotationally in terms of providing labour.
South Asian Res J Agri Fish | Pages : 8-11
DOI : 10.36346/sarjaf.2019.v01i01.002
To meet current and future demand of food, feed, fibers and fuel for a rapidly growing population, agricultural systems should intensify the use of land and water resources through more sustainable methods and by changing existing production systems and diversifying them into newer and more efficient enterprises. Sustainable agricultural growth is critical to ensure food and nutrition security .The more efficient use of agricultural inputs with improved management techniques are the key consideration for the sustainable intensification. Modern clever technologies regarding agronomic management and improved farm mechanizations may increase resource use efficiency in crop production. The reduction of high input use with relative increase in crop yield is the major concern. The objective of this study is to view the role of the sustainable agriculture intensification in relation to crop production and achievement of food security. In this paper, we will explore the ways in which sustainable intensification interventions can be carried out. Sustainable intensification could be the better means to minimize the crop yield gap without environmental burdens, a major challenge of agriculture for this era It has a positive implication on livelihood security in terms of better economic and social conditions.
South Asian Res J Agri Fish | Pages : 1-7
DOI : 10.36346/sarjaf.2019.v01i01.001
A field experiment was conducted during kharif 2017-18 to investigate the impacts of azolla (Azolla pinnata) bio-fertilizer and urea on rice (Oryza sativa L.) yield, temporal soil P availability and improvement in soil acidity indices under low land acidic soil of Meghalaya. Six treatments viz., control (T1), fresh azolla incorporation @ 16000 kg ha-1 (T2), 30 kg N ha-1 through urea (T3), 60 kg N ha-1 through urea (T4), 30 kg N ha-1 through urea + azolla incorporation @ 16000 kg ha-1 (T5) and 60 kg N ha-1 through urea with azolla incorporation @ 16000 kg ha-1 (T6) were tested in Randomized Block Design with four replications. Application of 60 kg N ha-1 through urea along with azolla incorporation @ 16000 kg ha-1 (T6) produced highest grain yield (4.2 t ha-1) followed by T5 and T4. It had significantly greater available phosphorus at 30 DAT (24.13 P2O5 kg ha-1) and at maturity (20.63 P2O5 kg ha-1) followed by 30 kg N ha-1 through urea + azolla incorporation @ 16000 kg ha-1 (T5), compared to control and other treatment plots. Available phosphorus in T6 was statistically significant over T4 (60 kg N ha-1 through urea) whereas T5 was significant over T3 (30 kg N ha-1 through urea) with respect to advancement in crop age. The soil acidity indices reflected highest improvement with azolla bio-fertilizer incorporation @ 16000 kg ha-1 (T2) over all other treatments indicating that azolla bio-fertilizer can be an alternative option for acid soil management.
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