South Asian Res J Pharm Sci | Pages : 33-39
DOI : 10.36346/sarjps.2020.v02i02.005
The article considers the efficacy of use short-term inhalations of high-concentrated oxygen with the addition of chamomile oil on the state of local immunity in adults with sore throat. Materials and methods: The study involved 35 patients aged 25 to 40 years (mean - 34.5 ± 5.71 years, 20 women, and 15 men) with a diagnosis sore throat. Observed were randomized into 2 groups: in group 1 the inhalations with high concentrated oxygen (n=18) were used, in group 2 is treated by inhalations of high concentrated oxygen with Chamomile oil (n=17). Inhalation was conducted with 3 breathing per minute three times (totally 3 minutes) twice per day. The efficacy of therapy was determined by the period of the decrease in severity clinical manifestations and their complete disappearance. The results of the study: The reason for the treatment in all patients was an increase in body temperature to 37.5-38.9°C, the presence of symptoms of intoxication, varying severity of sore throat, a feeling of dryness/sore throat and dry cough. Patients were self-evaluated the severity of sore throat at the period of treatment, at 3.8 ± 0.78 points in group 1 and 3.9 ± 0.86 points in group 2, difficulty in nasal breathing - at 4.1 ± 0.96 points and 4.2 ± 0.85 points, respectively; the severity of hyperemia - by 4.9 ± 0.30 points and 4.8 ± 0.46 points; an increase in tonsils - by 2.4 ± 0.40 and 2.3 ± 0.53 points in groups 1 and 2. In 17.6% people of the 2-nd group, already on the 3rd day, the pharyngoscopic picture completely normalized, while in the 1-st group this result was not attained. By the 4th day of observation, pharyngoscopic signs were absent in 41.2% of patients of the 2nd group and only in 16.7% of people of the 1st group. On the 5th day during the oropharyngeal examination, 55.6% of the 1-st group examined retained mild hyperemia of the mucous membranes of the palatine arches and small tongue, while in the 2nd group this symptom was recorded only in 17.6% of cases. According to the scoring, until the end of the observation period (5-7 days) in both groups - with the Oxygen Breathing Mixture Natural and Oxygen Breathing Mixture Sea Minerals Chamomile inhalations, hyperemia in the oropharynx significantly decreased. The effectiveness of the Oxygen Breathing Mixture Sea Minerals Chamomile inhalations was significantly reduced and the symptoms exceeded the effectiveness of Oxygen Breathing Mixture Natural by 3.5 times (p <0.05). The severity of pain in the follow-up dynamics decreased to 1.7 ± 0.18 points in the 1st group and 1.3 ± 0.15 in the 2nd group (p <0.05). The therapeutic effectiveness of Oxygen Breathing Mixture Sea Minerals Chamomile exceeded the efficiency of Oxygen Breathing Mixture Natural by 30.8%. A significant improvement in nasal breathing was observed on the 5th day of observation - up to 1.7 ± 0.43 points in group 2 versus 2.8 ± 0.51 points in group 1 (p <0.05), with the effectiveness of Oxygen Breathing Mixture Sea Minerals Chamomile-64.7%. Symptoms of intoxication and pharyngoscopic signs of the inflammatory process in patients of the 2-nd group stopped on average 1.5 days faster compared with patients of the 1st group. The level of sIgA in saliva tended to normalize (from 0.18 ± 0.08 to 0.21 ± 0.09 g / l, p> 0.05) in the group 1. The normalization of the content in the group 2 was observed saliva secretion of an initially low level of sIgA (from 0.16 ± 0.03 to 0.34 ± 0.06 g / l, p <0.05). The total duration of acute respiratory viral infections in patients receiving Oxygen Breathing Mixture Sea Minerals Chamomile was on average 3 days shorter than in patients of the 1st group.
South Asian Res J Pharm Sci | Pages : 12-15
DOI : 10.36346/sarjps.2020.v02i02.001
Background and Aim: The spread of ESBL in Escherichia coli isolates has led to increased antibiotic resistance and mortality. Therefore, the present study was performed to investigate the susceptibility and antibiotic resistance patterns of ESBL-producing E. coli strains isolated from patients referred to Zanjan hospitals. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive-analytical study, 260 urinary tract infection specimens were identified in Zanjan hospitals in 2019, 100 E. coli isolates were identified by standard bacteriological methods. Antibiotic susceptibility of the isolates was determined by disk diffusion method and ESBL-producing isolates were identified by combined disk method. Results: The most resistant to ampicillin (72%) and tetracycline (50%) were the most sensitive to amikacin (94%) and nitrofurantoin (90%), respectively. A total of 41 samples were identified as the final ESBL producer. Conclusion: The results indicate a relatively high prevalence of ESBL in E. coli isolates in Zanjan. Given the high prevalence rate, it is necessary to monitor the resistance pattern of gram negative isolates in Zanjan. Given the high percentage of resistance to E. coli isolates to antibiotics and to reduce the spread of resistance genes, sensitivity testing is recommended to select more effective antibiotics even for outpatient isolates.
Yadhukrishnan P U, Nolin Johncy, Shilpa R, Naveen Kumar P, Mohamed Thayub S, Daniel Sundar Singh, S
South Asian Res J Pharm Sci | Pages : 16-20
DOI : 10.36346/sarjps.2020.v02i02.002
Background: A medication error is a failure in the treatment process that leads to potential harm to the patient. Objectives: The study aimed to detect common prescribing and dispensing medication errors and frequency of medication errors reported by healthcare providers (HCP). Methodology: This observational prospective study was conducted for 10 months from January 2019 to October 2019 in an inpatient setting of a tertiary care hospital in Mangalore using Incident reporting form. The severity levels of medication errors have been analyzed by using the National Coordinating Council for Medication Error Reporting and Prevention (NCCMERP) proposed index for categorizing medication errors. Results: On evaluating the medication errors, 30.18% were prescribing errors, 22.64% were dispensing errors. Majority of the errors were reported by Clinical pharmacist (62.6%), followed by Nurses (24.52%).The drugs acting on CVS were the most common class of drugs in which errors occurred (27 %). Most of the errors in our study resulted in (Error No Harm) 86.3% (category B, C and D), (No Error) 13.5% (category A), 1.2 % (category E, F, G, H) resulted in (Error Harm). No incidence of Error Death was reported. Conclusion: The incidence of medication errors was significantly high and it is essential to establish medication error reporting system and the educational programme for drug prescribers and nurses concerning drug therapy are urgently needed to avoid medication errors and to improve patient safety by clinical pharmacists.
South Asian Res J Pharm Sci | Pages : 21-24
DOI : 10.36346/sarjps.2020.v02i02.003
For thousands of years, medicinal plants have been used to treat various diseases. Traditional medicine is still popular among people today and many people use the properties of medicinal plants to treat diseases. Some herbs are better known than others, both fresh and dried. In this article, we will investigate the properties of some medicinal plants.
South Asian Res J Pharm Sci | Pages : 25-32
DOI : 10.36346/sarjps.2020.v02i02.004
This research is aimed to evaluate the level of heavy metals and pesticides residues in the commonly consumed soft drink within Kazaure town. Twenty-five (25) samples of different soft drink brands was analysed for 10 organochlorines and 6 organophosphorus pesticides. The 10 organochlorines pesticides evaluated cover wide spectrum of chlorinated pesticides. The 6 organophosphorus pesticides tested are the most commonly used pesticides. Analysis was conducted using Gas Chromatograph with Electron Capture Detector using a capillary column for analysing organochlorine pesticides and Gas Chromatograph with Nitrogen Phosphorus Detector using a capillary column for analysing organophosphorus pesticides. Final confirmation was carried out by GC-MS. While the metals were analysed using AAS. The result showed that the average concentration of all the ten (10) organochlorines pesticides evaluated were 0.11, 2.99,0.22 and 0.26 μg/kg for α HCH, γ-HCH, δ-HCH and heptachlor respectively while β-HCH, DDT, Aldrin, Dieldrin Endosulfan and chlordane were not detected in all the brand of the soft drinks analyzed. The overall average of all the organochlorines pesticdes were found to be 3.71 μg/kg. The concentration of organophosphorous pesticide were found in the 25 samples of soft drink selected, 0.74μg/kg and 0.17μg/kg were found as the average concentration of Chlorpyrifos and malathion respectively. While the average concentration of the total organophosphorous pesticides obtained was 0.89 μg/kg. Chlorpyrifos and malathion were found in 48 and 44% of the 25 samples which range from 0.17 to 2.89 and 0.13 to 1.11μg/kg respectively. The parathion, merphos and tricresylphosphate were not detected in all the soft drinks tested. The level of metal residue revealed that Cu, Cr, Cd, Fe, Pb, Zn and Ni were found in 68%, 56%,36%,88% 40% ,80% and 24% respectively in the 25 samples analysed. However, Cu, Cd and Zn were within the permissible maximum levels(PML), while Cr, Fe, Pb, Ni were found above the PML 16%, 48%, 12% and Ni 12% respectively in the 25 samples of soft drink analysed. Hence, soft drink generally can be served as source of important elements for human health and development but can be as a source of other substance like pesticide and some metals which can be toxic to human.
Professor Aamir Abdullahi Hamza
Editor-in-Chief "South Asian Research Journal of Medical sciences"
Dr. Mohamad Fazli Sabri
Editor-in-Chief "South Asian Research Journal of Business and Management"
Dr. Fatmir Shehu
Editor-in-Chief "South Asian Research Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences"
Dr. Sunil Kumar
Editor-in-Chief "South Asian Research Journal of Agriculture and Fisheries"
Prof. Helme Ahmed Altaee
Editor-in-Chief "South Asian Research Journal of Oral and Dental Sciences"
Dr. Md. Habibur Rahman
Editor-in-Chief "South Asian Research Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences"
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